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Urea

Chemical Economics Handbook

Contents

Executive summary 7
Summary 9
World supply and demand 12
Capacity 13
Production 16
Consumption 18
Price 21
Trade 23
Introduction 25
Manufacturing processes 26
Once-through 27
Partial recovery 27
Total recycle 27
Conversion to solids 27
Prilling27
Granulation28
Crystallization28
Biuret formation28
Conditioning28
Use as liquids 29
Environmental issues 30
Supply and demand by region 31
United States31
Producing companies31
Salient statistics34
Consumption35
Fertilizers36
Controlled-release fertilizers39
Liquid urea39
Urea-formaldehyde resins40
Livestock feeds40
Melamine41
Environmental/other41
Price41
Trade44
Canada46
Producing companies46
Salient statistics47
Consumption48
Price49
Trade50
Mexico 51
Producing companies 51
Salient statistics 51
Consumption 52
Trade 53
Central and South America 53
Producing companies 53
Salient statistics 56
Production 56
Consumption 57
Trade 58
Western Europe 59
Producing companies 59
Salient statistics 61
Production 62
Consumption 63
Fertilizers 64
Urea-formaldehyde resins 64
Melamine 65
Diesel exhaust fluid 65
Other 65
Trade 65
Central Europe 66
Producing companies 66
Salient statistics 68
Production 69
Consumption 70
Trade 71
Eastern Europe 72
Producing companies 72
Salient statistics 76
Production 76
Consumption 77
Trade 78
Middle East 79
Producing companies 79
Salient statistics 82
Production 83
Consumption 83
Trade 85
Africa 86
Producing companies 86
Salient statistics 88
Production 89
Consumption 90
Trade 91
Southwest Asia 92
Producing companies 92
Bangladesh 95
India 95
Pakistan 96
Salient statistics 96
Production 98
Bangladesh 99
India 99
Pakistan 99
Consumption 99
India 101
Pakistan 101
Trade 102
China 102
Producing companies 102
Salient statistics 108
Consumption 109
Fertilizer 110
Urea-formaldehyde resins 111
Melamine 111
Animal feeds 111
Other 111
Price 111
Trade 112
Japan 113
Producing companies 113
Salient statistics 113
Consumption 114
Fertilizers 115
Nonfertilizer uses 115
Trade 116
Other Northeast Asia 116
Producing companies 116
Salient statistics 116
Production 117
Consumption 118
Trade 119
Southeast Asia 120
Producing companies 120
Brunei 122
Indonesia 122
Malaysia 122
Myanmar 122
Vietnam 123
Oceania (Australia and New Zealand) 123
Salient statistics 123
Production 124
Consumption 125
Australia 126
Indonesia 126
Malaysia 126
Thailand 127
Vietnam 127
Trade 127
Additional resources 129
Revisions 130
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