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Sulfuric Acid

Chemical Economics Handbook

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

Executive summary 9
Summary 10
Introduction 13
Physical properties and grades 14
Manufacturing processes 15
Sulfur dioxide production 15
Elemental sulfur 15
Smelter off-gases and pyrites 16
Stack gases 16
Hydrogen sulfide 17
Spent acid or sulfuric acid sludges 17
Other 17
Sulfur dioxide to sulfuric acid 18
Contact process 18
Chamber process 19
Refortified or reused sulfuric acid 19
Environmental issues 20
Supply and demand by region 22
World 22
Capacity 22
Salient statistics 24
Production 25
Consumption 28
Trade 32
North America 38
Producing companies 38
Capacity 43
United States 43
Canada 44
Mexico 45
Salient statistics 45
Production 46
Consumption 47
Trade 47
United States 49
Salient statistics 49
Production 50
Consumption 51
Fertilizer use 54
Wet-process phosphoric acid 55
Normal superphosphate 56
Metallurgical applications 56
Ore processing 57
Iron and steel industry 58
Other 58
Petroleum alkylation 59
Methyl methacrylate 61
Ammonium sulfate and caprolactam 61
Aluminum sulfate 62
Hydrofluoric acid 63
Pulp and paper 63
Batteries 63
Surface-active agents 64
Cellulosic fibers and plastics 65
Titanium dioxide 66
Water treatment 67
Hydrochloric acid/sodium and potassium sulfate 67
Electric utilities 67
Chlorine drying 68
Chrome chemicals 68
Citric acid 68
Boric acid 68
Resorcinol 68
Furfural 69
Alcohols 69
Phenol 69
Miscellaneous 69
Price 70
Trade 72
Canada 73
Salient statistics 73
Production 74
Consumption 75
Trade 76
Mexico 76
Salient statistics 76
Production 77
Consumption 78
Price 78
Trade 79
Latin America 79
Producing companies 79
Capacity 83
Salient statistics 84
Production 85
Consumption 86
Price 87
Trade 88
Western Europe 88
Producing companies 88
Capacity 93
Salient statistics 94
Production 95
Consumption 96
Fertilizer use 98
Chemical use 99
Industrial use 100
Price 101
Trade 102
Central Europe 103
Producing companies 103
Capacity 105
Salient statistics 107
Production 108
Consumption 108
Fertilizer use 109
Chemical use 110
Industrial use 111
Price 112
Trade 113
Eastern Europe 113
Producing companies 113
Capacity 118
Salient statistics 119
Production 120
Consumption 121
Fertilizer use 122
Chemical use 123
Industrial use 124
Price 125
Trade 126
Middle East 126
Producing companies 127
Capacity 130
Salient statistics 131
Production 132
Consumption 133
Fertilizer use 134
Chemical use 135
Industrial use 136
Price 137
Trade 137
Africa 138
Producing companies 138
Capacity 144
Salient statistics 146
Production 147
Consumption 147
Fertilizer use 148
Chemical use 149
Industrial use 150
Price 151
Trade 151
Southwest Asia 152
Producing companies 152
Capacity 156
Salient statistics 157
Production 158
Consumption 158
Fertilizer use 160
Chemical use 161
Industrial use 162
Trade 163
Mainland China 164
Producing companies 164
Salient statistics 173
Production 174
Consumption 175
Fertilizer use 176
Chemical and miscellaneous use 177
Titanium dioxide 177
Cellulosic fibers 177
Hydrofluoric acid 177
Citric acid 177
Sulfonated surfactants 177
Methyl methacrylate 178
Aluminum sulfate 178
Chromium compounds 178
Industrial and miscellaneous use 178
Price 179
Trade 179
Japan 180
Producing companies 180
Salient statistics 182
Production 183
Consumption 183
Fertilizer use 185
Chemical use 186
Industrial use 187
Price 188
Trade 189
Northeast Asia 190
Producing companies 190
Capacity 192
Salient statistics 192
Production 193
Consumption 194
Fertilizer use 195
Chemical use 196
Industrial use 197
Trade 199
Southeast Asia 200
Producing companies 200
Capacity 202
Salient statistics 202
Production 203
Consumption 204
Fertilizer use 205
Chemical use 206
Industrial use 207
Trade 209
Oceania 210
Producing companies 210
Capacity 211
Salient statistics 211
Production 212
Consumption 213
Fertilizer use 214
Chemical use 215
Industrial use 215
Trade 216
Additional resources 218
Revisions 219
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