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Rare Earth Minerals and Products

Chemical Economics Handbook

Table of Contents

Executive summary 6
Summary 7
Introduction 14
Cerium 15
Yttrium 15
Lanthanum 16
Neodymium 16
Praseodymium 16
Samarium 16
Gadolinium 16
Dysprosium 16
Europium 17
Terbium 17
Other 17
Substitution 18
Wind turbines 18
Electric and hybrid vehicles 19
Batteries (NiMH) 20
Phosphors 21
Environmental issues 22
Recycling 23
Minerals 25
Description 25
Grades and specifications 25
Mineral recovery processes 28
Plutonic ores 28
Sedimentary ores 28
Supply and demand by region 29
World 29
Reserves 29
Capacity 30
Production 32
Consumption 34
United States 35
Reserves and resources 35
Producing companies 36
Salient statistics 36
Price 38
Trade 38
Western Europe 39
Reserves and resources 39
Producing companies 40
Japan 40
China 40
Reserves and resources 40
Producing companies 40
Production 43
Australia 45
Reserves and resources 45
Producing companies 46
Production 47
Other countries 47
Reserves 47
Resources 49
Producing companies 50
Products 54
Grades and specifications 55
Commercial-grade products (Class IA) 55
Partly refined concentrates (Class IB) 55
Individual rare earth compounds and metals (Class II) –55
Manufacturing processes 55
Commercial-grade products 56
Products from bastnäsite 56
Products from monazite 56
Products from rare earth chloride 56
Products from miscellaneous starting materials 56
Partly refined concentrates 57
Products from bastnäsite 57
Products from rare earth chloride 57
Individual rare earth compounds and metals 57
Liquid-liquid solvent extraction 57
Ion exchange separation 57
Miscellaneous separation techniques 58
Supply and demand by region 67
United States 67
Producing companies 67
Salient statistics 70
Consumption 71
Fluid cracking catalysts (FCC) 72
Emission control catalysts (ECC) 74
Metallurgy 75
Glass and ceramics 80
Battery alloys (NiMH) 83
Other 85
Price 88
Trade 89
Western Europe 92
Producing companies 92
Salient statistics 94
Consumption 95
Catalysts 96
Polishing powders 98
Metallurgy 98
Magnets 99
Phosphors 100
Batteries (NiMH) 100
Glass and ceramics 100
Other 101
Price 101
Trade 102
Japan 103
Producing companies 103
Salient statistics 106
Consumption 107
Catalysts 107
Nickel metal hydride batteries (NiMH) 109
Magnets 110
Polishing powders 111
Phosphors 111
Glass 111
Ceramics 111
Metallurgy 111
Other 112
Price 112
Trade 112
Imports 113
Exports 114
China 115
Producing companies 115
Salient statistics 118
Consumption 122
Magnets 123
Polishing powders 125
Emission control catalysts (automotive) 126
Fluid cracking catalysts (oil refining) 127
Glass and ceramics 128
Batteries (NiMH) 128
Metallurgy 129
Phosphors 130
Other 130
Price 130
Trade 132
Imports 132
Exports 132
Other regions 133
Producing companies 133
Salient statistics 137
Trade 138
Additional resources 139
Revisions 140
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