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Plastics Recycling

Chemical Economics Handbook

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

Executive summary 7
Summary 9
Introduction 12
Recycling defined 14
Environmental and health 16
Plastics in landfill 16
Plastics from rivers to oceans 16
Plastics pollution in the air 16
Glossary 17
United States 21
Background 21
Municipal solid waste (MSW) 21
Plastics in perspective 25
Evolution of plastics recycling 27
Legislation 28
Current status 30
Technology 30
Sorting/granulation 31
Separation (physical) 33
Chemical recycling 35
Thermolysis 36
Chemical depolymerization 36
Collection infrastructure 37
Thermoplastic resin profile 38
Producing companies 38
Production 40
Major sources of thermoplastic recyclables 43
The recycling of plastics 50
PET 51
Producers (reclaimers) 51
Salient statistics 53
PET recycling rates 54
Consumption 55
Trade 58
Polyethylenes (HDPE, LDPE, and LLDPE) 59
HDPE 59
Producers (reclaimers) 59
Consumption 64
LDPE/LLDPE 67
Producers (reclaimers) 67
Consumption 68
Trade 69
Polypropylene 70
Producers (reclaimers) 70
Production (reclaimed) 72
Consumption 72
Polystyrene 73
Producers (reclaimers) 73
Production (reclaimed) 75
Salient statistics 75
Trade 77
PVC 78
Producers (reclaimers) 78
Consumption 79
Trade 81
Price 81
Canada 84
Thermoplastic resin profile 84
Producing companies 84
Producers (reclaimers) 84
Municipal solid waste 85
PET 88
HDPE 90
LDPE/LLDPE 92
Polypropylene 92
Polystyrene 93
PVC 96
Mexico 98
Thermoplastic resin profile 98
PET and other plastics 98
Polyethylenes (HDPE, LDPE, and LLDPE) 101
HDPE 103
LDPE/LLDPE 104
Polypropylene 106
Polystyrene and EPS 106
PVC 109
Other 110
Central and South America 112
Thermoplastic resin profile 112
Producing companies 112
Municipal solid waste (MSW) in Brazil 113
Plastics recycling 113
Trade 117
Europe 120
Recycling terminology 121
Alternative recycling methods 122
Mechanical recycling 122
Feedstock recycling 123
Energy recovery 124
Major producers of recycled resins 124
Sources of postconsumer waste and processing of recycled plastics resins 129
PET 131
Polyolefins 133
Polyvinyl chloride 133
Price 134
Other Europe 138
Middle East and Africa 140
Bahrain 140
Israel 140
Saudi Arabia 141
Turkey 141
United Arab Emirates 142
Africa 143
China 145
Legislative summary and current activity 145
Plastics recycling 147
Salient statistics 148
Consumption 149
Price 151
Trade 152
India 153
Legislative summary and current activity 153
Trade 155
Japan 157
Legislative summary 157
The Fundamental Law for Establishing a Sound Material-Cycle Society (SMS) 157
Law for the Promotion of Effective Utilization of Resources 158
Designated resource-saving industries 158
Designated resource-recycling industries 159
Specified reuse-promoted products 159
Specified labeled products 160
Specified resource-recycled products 160
Specified by-products 160
Recycling structure 161
Disposition of plastic waste 162
Recent business activities in plastics recycling 164
PET 164
Polyolefins 165
Expanded polystyrene 165
PVC 166
Sources of postconsumer waste and consumption of recycled resins 166
PET 166
Polyolefins 168
Expanded polystyrene 168
Polyvinyl chloride 170
Feedstock recycling 170
Reducing agent for blast furnaces 171
Feedstock recycle in coke ovens 171
Liquefaction and gasification 172
Depolymerization of PET 172
Thermal recycling 173
Fuel for power generation 173
Trade 174
Price 175
South Korea 176
Legislative summary and current activity 176
Plastics recycling 178
Trade 178
Taiwan 180
Legislative summary and current activity 180
Regulated recyclable waste 180
Recycling of waste containers 180
Plastics recycling 181
Waste PET containers 181
Waste PVC containers 181
Waste PP/PE containers 182
Waste PS containers (nonfoam) 182
Waste PS containers (foam) 182
Trade 182
Other Asia 184
Trade 184
Imports 184
Exports 186
Australia 188
Producers (plastic recycling companies) 188
Recycling 188
Additional resources 192
Revisions 194
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