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Phosphorus and Phosphorus Chemicals

Chemical Economics Handbook

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

Executive summary11
Summary12
Introduction 17
Manufacturing processes 23
Phosphorus (P4) 23
Raw materials 23
Process efficiency 23
By-products 23
Basic phosphorus chemicals 24
Phosphorus trichloride (PCl3) 24
Phosphorus pentasulfide (P2S5) 24
Phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5) 24
Sodium hypophosphite (NaH2PO2·H2O) 24
Hypophosphorous acid (phosphinic acid) 25
Inorganic derivatives of phosphorus trichloride 25
Phosphorus oxychloride 25
Phosphorus sulfochloride 25
Phosphorus pentachloride 25
Phosphorous acid (phosphonic acid) 26
Environmental issues 27
Supply and demand by region 29
United States 29
Elemental phosphorus 30
Producing companies 30
Salient statistics 30
Consumption 31
Miscellaneous chemicals and alloys 33
Direct uses 33
Price 33
Trade 34
Phosphorus chloride and phosphorus oxychloride 35
Producing companies 35
Salient statistics 36
Consumption 37
Pesticides 40
Surfactants and sequestrants 41
Plastics and elastomer additives 42
Functional fluids 45
Lubricating oil additives 46
Other 46
Price 48
Trade 48
Phosphorus pentasulfide 50
Producing companies 50
Salient statistics 50
Consumption 51
Lubricating oil additives 52
Pesticides 53
Flotation reagents 54
Other 54
Price 55
Trade 55
Phosphorus pentoxide 55
Producing companies 55
Salient statistics 56
Consumption 56
Surfactants 57
Plastics and elastomer additives/catalysts 58
Lube oil additives 58
Other 58
Price 58
Trade 58
Sodium hypophosphite 59
Producing companies 59
Salient statistics 59
Consumption 59
Price 60
Trade 61
Canada 61
Producing companies 61
Consumption 61
Trade 62
Mexico 62
Producing companies 62
Consumption 62
Trade 63
Western Europe 64
Summary 64
Elemental (yellow) phosphorus 66
Producing companies 66
Salient statistics 66
Production 67
Consumption 67
Price 69
Trade 69
Imports 69
Exports 70
Red phosphorus 70
Producing companies 70
Production 71
Consumption 71
Flame retardants 72
Safety matches 73
Civil and military pyrotechnics 73
Metallurgy 73
Price 73
Phosphorus trichloride and oxychloride 73
Producing companies 73
Salient statistics 74
Consumption 75
Phosphorus trichloride 76
Phosphorus oxychloride 77
Phosphorus sulfochloride 78
Price 78
Trade 78
Phosphorus trichloride 78
Phosphorus oxychloride 79
Phosphorus pentasulfide 80
Producing companies 80
Salient statistics 81
Consumption 81
Insecticides 81
Lubricating oil additives 81
Other 82
Price 82
Trade 82
Phosphorus pentoxide 83
Producing companies 83
Salient statistics 83
Consumption 84
Price 85
Trade 85
Imports 85
Exports 86
Sodium hypophosphite 86
Producing companies 86
Production 87
Consumption 87
Price 87
Trade 87
Central Europe 88
Elemental phosphorus 88
Producing companies 88
Salient statistics 88
Consumption 88
Price 89
Trade 89
Imports 89
Phosphorus chlorides 90
Producing companies 90
Poland 91
Romania 91
Consumption 91
Trade 91
Phosphorus pentasulfide 92
Producing companies 92
Consumption92
Poland 92
Romania 92
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)92
Elemental (yellow) phosphorus 92
Producing companies 92
Salient statistics 93
Production94
Consumption 94
Russia94
Other94
Trade 94
Phosphorus trichloride 95
Producing companies 95
Trade96
Phosphorus pentasulfide96
Indian Subcontinent96
Elemental (yellow) phosphorus 96
Producing companies 96
Salient statistics 97
Consumption 98
Trade 98
Red phosphorus 99
Producing companies 99
Trade 99
Phosphorus trichloride 100
Producing companies 100
Trade100
Phosphorus oxychloride 101
Producing companies 101
Trade101
Phosphorus pentachloride 102
Producing companies 102
Trade102
Phosphorus pentasulfide102
Phosphorus pentoxide 103
Producing companies 103
Trade103
Phosphorus sulfochloride 104
Mainland China104
Elemental (yellow) phosphorus 104
Producing companies 104
Salient statistics 107
Consumption 108
Thermal acid108
Phosphorus trichloride108
Other109
Price 109
Trade110
Red phosphorus111
Producing companies 111
Salient statistics 111
Consumption 111
Flame retardants112
Pesticides 112
Metallurgy 112
Safety matches113
Other 113
Price 113
Trade113
Phosphorus trichloride114
Producing companies 114
Salient statistics 115
Consumption 116
Pesticides 117
Phosphorus oxychloride119
Other120
Price 120
Trade120
Phosphorus oxychloride 120
Producing companies 120
Salient statistics 120
Consumption 122
Flame retardants123
Pharmaceuticals 123
Pesticides124
Other 124
Price 124
Trade124
Phosphorus pentasulfide 125
Producing companies 125
Salient statistics 125
Consumption 126
Pesticides 127
Lubricating oil additives127
Other127
Price 127
Trade 127
Phosphorus pentoxide 128
Producing companies 128
Salient statistics 128
Consumption 129
High-purity phosphates130
Desiccants 130
Surfactants 130
Other 130
Price 130
Trade130
Sodium hypophosphite 131
Producing companies 131
Salient statistics 131
Consumption 132
Electroless nickel plating 133
Water treatment 133
Food 133
Other 133
Price 133
Trade 133
Japan134
Elemental (yellow) phosphorus 134
Producing companies134
Salient statistics 134
Consumption 135
Price 136
Trade 136
Red phosphorus 136
Producing companies136
Consumption 137
Price 138
Trade 138
Phosphorus trichloride 138
Producing companies138
Production139
Consumption 139
Price 140
Trade 140
Phosphorus oxychloride141
Producing companies141
Production142
Consumption 142
Price 143
Trade 143
Phosphorus pentachloride144
Phosphorus pentasulfide145
Producing companies145
Production145
Consumption 145
Price 146
Trade 146
Phosphorus pentoxide146
Producing companies146
Production147
Consumption 147
Price 148
Trade 149
Sodium hypophosphite149
Producing companies149
Production149
Consumption 150
Price 150
Trade 150
Northeast Asia 151
Elemental (yellow) phosphorus 151
Salient statistics 151
Consumption 152
Trade 153
Red phosphorus 154
Phosphorus trichloride154
Phosphorus oxychloride154
Phosphorus pentachloride155
Phosphorus pentoxide155
Southeast Asia 156
Elemental (yellow) phosphorus 156
Producing companies156
Salient statistics157
Consumption 157
Trade 158
Phosphorus trichloride159
Phosphorus oxychloride160
Phosphorus pentachloride160
Additional resources161
Revisions163
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