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Lithium, Lithium Minerals, and Lithium Chemicals

Chemical Economics Handbook

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

Executive summary9
Summary 1
Supply and demand 19
Lithium carbonate20
Lithium hydroxide 21
Lithium chloride 21
Consumption22
Batteries24
Lithium battery materials26
Lithium batteries by type27
Primary lithium batteries27
Secondary lithium batteries28
Lithium batteries by market31
Mobile devices31
Electric vehicles32
Grid storage35
Nonbattery markets36
Ceramics and glass36
Lubricants36
Air treatment37
Polymer and rubber37
Primary aluminum37
Pharmaceuticals38
Other38
Continuous casting38
Cement38
Fuel cells39
Nuclear reactors39
Introduction40
Manufacturing processes42
Brine versus hard rock42
Lithium hydroxide43
Lithium chloride43
Lithium bromide43
Lithium nitrate43
Organolithium compounds43
Lithium tree44
Supply and demand by region46
World46
Resources46
Reserves49
Producing companies50
Lithium raw materials50
Lithium carbonate54
Lithium hydroxide55
World producers57
SQM57
Albemarle (formerly Rockwood Lithium)57
FMC Lithium58
Talison Lithium58
Tianqi Lithium59
Production59
Price61
United States62
Producing companies62
Salient statistics65
Lithium carbonate65
Lithium hydroxide66
Lithium chloride67
Lithium metal68
Spodumene concentrate69
Consumption70
By product71
Lithium carbonate71
Lithium hydroxide71
Lithium chloride 7
By end use71
Batteries73
Polymer and rubber73
Lithium hypochlorite73
Ceramics and glass74
Lubricants74
Pharmaceuticals74
Primary aluminum (and alloys)74
Air treatment75
Other76
Price76
Trade78
Imports78
Lithium carbonate78
Lithium hydroxide79
Lithium chloride80
Lithium metal80
Exports81
Lithium carbonate82
Lithium hydroxide82
Lithium chloride83
Lithium metal83
Canada83
Producing companies83
Salient statistics88
Lithium carbonate88
Lithium hydroxide88
Lithium chloride 89
Lithium metal 89
Consumption 89
Lithium carbonate 89
Lithium hydroxide 89
Lithium chloride and metal 90
Price 90
Trade 90
Imports 90
Exports 91
Mexico 92
Producing companies 92
Salient statistics 93
Consumption 93
Trade 94
Imports 94
Exports 94
Central and South America 94
Producing companies 94
Argentina 98
FMC Lithium 99
Orocobre 99
Advantage Lithium 100
ADY Resources 100
Albemarle 100
Argosy Minerals 100
Eramet 100
Galaxy Resources 101
Lithium X 101
Litio Minera Argentina S.A. 101
LSC Lithium 101
Millennial Lithium Corp. 102
Minera Exar SA 102
NeoLithum Corp. 102
Other 102
Bolivia 103
Brazil 103
Chile 104
Peru 105
Salient statistics 105
Lithium carbonate 105
Lithium hydroxide 106
Lithium chloride 107
Lithium metal 107
Production 107
Consumption 108
Price 108
Trade 109
Imports 109
Lithium carbonate 109
Lithium hydroxide 110
Lithium chloride 110
Exports 111
Western Europe 111
Producing companies 111
Austria 113
Finland 113
Germany 113
Ireland 114
Portugal 114
Spain 114
Sweden 115
United Kingdom 115
Salient statistics 115
Lithium carbonate 115
Lithium hydroxide 115
Lithium chloride 116
Consumption 117
Price 119
Trade 120
Imports 120
Lithium carbonate 120
Lithium hydroxide 120
Lithium chloride 121
Exports 122
Lithium carbonate 122
Lithium hydroxide 122
Lithium chloride 123
Central Europe 123
Producing companies 123
Salient statistics 123
Lithium carbonate 123
Lithium hydroxide 124
Consumption 125
Price 125
Trade 126
Imports 126
Lithium carbonate 126
Lithium hydroxide 127
Lithium chloride 127
Exports 127
Lithium carbonate 127
Lithium hydroxide 128
Lithium chloride 129
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and Baltic States 129
Producing companies 129
Salient statistics 129
Lithium carbonate 129
Lithium hydroxide 130
Trade 131
Imports 131
Exports 133
Middle East and Africa 133
Producing companies 133
Democratic Republic of the Congo 134
Ghana 134
Israel 134
Mali 135
Namibia 135
South Africa 135
Zimbabwe 135
Salient statistics 136
Lithium carbonate 136
Lithium hydroxide 136
Lithium chloride 137
Consumption 137
Price 137
Trade 138
Lithium carbonate 138
Lithium hydroxide 139
Lithium chloride 139
Japan 139
Producing companies 139
Salient statistics 140
Lithium carbonate 140
Lithium hydroxide 141
Lithium chloride 142
Consumption 142
Lithium carbonate 142
Lithium hydroxide 143
Trade 144
Imports 144
Exports 147
China 147
Raw materials 147
Lithium carbonate 150
Producing companies 150
Salient statistics 152
Consumption 152
Price 153
Trade 154
Lithium hydroxide 155
Producing companies 155
Salient statistics 157
Consumption 157
Price 158
Trade 158
Lithium chloride 159
Producing companies 159
Salient statistics 159
Consumption 160
Price 161
Trade 161
Lithium hexafluorophosphate 162
Producing companies 162
Salient statistics 162
Consumption 163
Price 163
Trade 163
Lithium iron phosphate 164
Producing companies 164
Salient statistics 165
Consumption 165
Price 165
Trade 165
Lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide 166
Producing companies 166
Salient statistics 167
Consumption 168
Price 168
Trade 168
Lithium cobalt oxide 169
Producing companies 169
Salient statistics 169
Consumption 170
Price 170
Lithium manganese oxide 170
Producing companies 170
Salient statistics 171
Consumption 171
Price 171
Trade 172
Lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide 172
Producing companies 172
Consumption 173
Price 173
Lithium titanium oxide 173
Producing companies 173
Price 174
Other Asia and Oceania 174
Producing companies 174
Afghanistan 175
Australia 176
India 178
South Korea 178
Taiwan 178
Salient statistics 178
Lithium carbonate 178
Lithium hydroxide 179
Lithium chloride 180
Spodumene 181
Consumption 181
Lithium carbonate 181
Lithium hydroxide 182
Lithium chloride 183
Trade 183
Imports 183
Lithium carbonate and lithium hydroxide 183
Lithium chloride 188
Exports 188
Spodumene 188
Lithium carbonate and lithium hydroxide 189
Bibliography 192
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