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Lithium & Lithium Minerals Market

Lithium Market Outlook, Supply & Demand, Forecast and Analysis

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

Executive summary 11
Summary 13
Supply and demand 22
Lithium carbonate 23
Lithium hydroxide 24
Lithium chloride 25
Consumption 26
Batteries 28
Lithium battery materials 30
Lithium batteries by type 32
Primary lithium batteries 32
Secondary lithium batteries 33
Lithium batteries by market 39
Mobile devices 39
Electric vehicles 39
Grid storage 43
Nonbattery markets 44
Ceramics and glass 44
Lubricants 45
Air treatment 45
Polymer and rubber 46
Primary aluminum 46
Pharmaceuticals 47
Other 47
Continuous casting 47
Cement 47
Fuel cells 47
Nuclear applications 48
Introduction 49
Manufacturing processes 51
Brine versus hard rock 51
Lithium hydroxide 52
Lithium chloride 53
Lithium bromide 53
Lithium nitrate 53
Organolithium compounds 53
Lithium tree 53
Supply and demand by region 56
World 56
Resources 56
Reserves 58
Producing companies 59
Lithium raw materials 59
Lithium carbonate 60
Lithium hydroxide 61
World producers 61
SQM 61
Albemarle (formerly Rockwood Lithium) 62
Livent 63
Tianqi Lithium 64
Production 64
Price 67
United States 67
Producing companies 67
Salient statistics 71
Lithium carbonate 71
Lithium hydroxide 72
Lithium chloride 72
Lithium metal 73
Spodumene concentrate 74
Consumption 75
By product 76
Lithium carbonate 76
Lithium hydroxide 76
Lithium chloride 76
By end use 76
Batteries 78
Polymer and rubber 78
Lithium hypochlorite 78
Ceramics and glass 79
Lubricants 79
Pharmaceuticals 79
Primary aluminum (and alloys) 79
Air treatment 80
Other 80
Price 80
Trade 81
Imports 81
Lithium carbonate 81
Lithium hydroxide 82
Lithium chloride 83
Lithium metal 84
Exports 85
Lithium carbonate 86
Lithium hydroxide 87
Lithium chloride 88
Lithium metal 88
Canada 88
Producing companies 88
Salient statistics 93
Lithium carbonate 93
Lithium hydroxide 94
Lithium chloride 95
Lithium metal 95
Consumption 95
Lithium carbonate 95
Lithium hydroxide 95
Lithium chloride and metal 96
Price 96
Trade 96
Imports 96
Exports 97
Mexico 98
Producing companies 98
Salient statistics 99
Consumption 99
Trade 100
Imports 100
Exports 100
Central and South America 100
Producing companies 100
Argentina 104
Livent 104
Orocobre 104
Albemarle 105
Argosy Minerals 105
Eramet 105
Galaxy Resources 106
POSCO 106
Galan Lithium 106
Lake Resources 106
Lithium X 107
Litio Minera Argentina S.A. 107
Millennial Lithium Corp. 107
Minera Exar SA 107
NeoLithum Corp. 108
Other 108
Bolivia 108
Brazil 109
Chile 110
Peru 111
Salient statistics 111
Lithium carbonate 111
Lithium hydroxide 112
Lithium chloride 113
Lithium metal 114
Production 114
Consumption 115
Price 115
Trade 116
Imports 116
Lithium carbonate 116
Lithium hydroxide 117
Lithium chloride 118
Exports 118
Western Europe 119
Producing companies 119
Austria 121
Finland 122
Germany 122
Ireland 122
Portugal 122
Spain 123
Sweden 124
United Kingdom 124
Salient statistics 124
Lithium carbonate 124
Lithium hydroxide 124
Lithium chloride 125
Consumption 126
Price 129
Trade 129
Imports 129
Lithium carbonate 129
Lithium hydroxide 130
Lithium chloride 131
Exports 132
Lithium carbonate 132
Lithium hydroxide 133
Lithium chloride 134
Central Europe 134
Producing companies 134
Salient statistics 134
Lithium carbonate 134
Lithium hydroxide 135
Consumption 136
Price 136
Trade 137
Imports 137
Lithium carbonate 137
Lithium hydroxide 138
Lithium chloride 139
Exports 139
Lithium carbonate 139
Lithium hydroxide 140
Lithium chloride 141
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and Baltic States 141
Producing companies 141
Salient statistics 142
Lithium carbonate 142
Lithium hydroxide 143
Trade 144
Imports 144
Exports 146
Middle East and Africa 147
Producing companies 147
Democratic Republic of the Congo 148
Ghana 149
Israel 149
Mali 149
Namibia 149
South Africa 149
Zimbabwe 150
Salient statistics 150
Lithium carbonate 150
Lithium hydroxide 151
Lithium chloride 152
Consumption 152
Price 152
Trade 153
Lithium carbonate 153
Lithium hydroxide 154
Lithium chloride 155
Japan 155
Producing companies 155
Salient statistics 156
Lithium carbonate 156
Lithium hydroxide 157
Lithium chloride 158
Consumption 158
Lithium carbonate 158
Lithium hydroxide 159
Trade 160
Imports 160
Exports 163
Mainland China 164
Raw materials 164
Lithium carbonate 167
Producing companies 167
Salient statistics 171
Consumption 171
Price 172
Trade 173
Lithium hydroxide 175
Producing companies 175
Salient statistics 178
Consumption 179
Price 180
Trade 180
Lithium chloride 182
Producing companies 182
Salient statistics 183
Consumption 184
Price 184
Trade 185
Lithium hexafluorophosphate 186
Producing companies 186
Salient statistics 187
Consumption 188
Price 188
Trade 188
Lithium iron phosphate 189
Producing companies 189
Salient statistics 191
Consumption 192
Price 192
Trade 193
Lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide 193
Producing companies 193
Salient statistics 195
Consumption 196
Price 196
Trade 197
Lithium cobalt oxide 197
Producing companies 197
Salient statistics 198
Consumption 199
Price 199
Lithium manganese oxide 199
Producing companies 199
Salient statistics 201
Consumption 201
Price 202
Trade 202
Lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide 203
Producing companies 203
Consumption 203
Price 204
Lithium titanium oxide 204
Producing companies 204
Price 204
Other Asia and Oceania 204
Producing companies 204
Afghanistan 208
Australia 208
India 209
South Korea 209
Taiwan 209
Salient statistics 209
Lithium carbonate 210
Lithium hydroxide 211
Lithium chloride 213
Spodumene 213
Consumption 213
Lithium carbonate 213
Lithium hydroxide 215
Lithium chloride 215
Trade 215
Imports 215
Lithium carbonate and lithium hydroxide 215
Lithium chloride 222
Exports 222
Spodumene 222
Lithium carbonate and lithium hydroxide 223
Additional resources 227
Revisions 229
Data Workbook 230
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