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Lignosulfonates

Chemical Economics Handbook

Contents

Executive summary 6
Summary 7
Introduction 10
Manufacturing processes 13
From sulfite liquor 13
From kraft pulping liquor (black liquor) 14
Lignin utilization from pulping liquor or wood waste 14
Biorefinery 15
Environmental issues 16
Supply and demand by region 17
United States 17
Producing companies 17
Salient statistics 19
Production 19
Consumption 20
Dispersant applications 21
Concrete admixtures 21
Pesticide dispersants 22
Oil field chemicals 22
Asphalt emulsions 23
Cement additives 23
Water treatment 24
Batteries 24
Dyes 24
Gypsum wallboard 24
Leather tanning 25
Micronutrients 25
Pigment dispersants 25
Industrial cleaners 25
Other 25
Binder and adhesive applications 26
Road binder, dust control 26
Animal feed pellets 26
Ceramics, bricks, refractories, and foundry cores 27
Adhesives 28
Soil conditioner 28
Carbon black 28
Animal feed molasses additive 28
Price 28
Trade 29
Imports 29
Exports 30
Canada 31
Producing companies 31
Salient statistics 32
Consumption 32
Price 32
Trade 33
Latin America 33
Salient statistics 33
Consumption 34
Trade 34
Western Europe 36
Producing companies 36
Salient statistics 38
Production 38
Consumption 39
Dispersant applications 39
Concrete admixtures and cement additives 39
Agricultural dispersants 40
Oil well drilling additives 40
Dyes and pigments 41
Leather tanning 41
Gypsum wallboard 41
Lead batteries 41
Paper and board sizing agents 41
Other 42
Binder and adhesive applications 42
Animal feed pellets 42
Carbon black and coal 42
Other 43
Vanillin 43
Price 43
Trade 44
Imports 44
Exports 45
Central and Eastern Europe 45
Producing companies 45
Salient statistics 47
Consumption 47
Price 48
Trade 49
Imports 49
Exports 49
Middle East 50
Salient statistics 50
Price 51
Trade 51
Imports 51
Exports 52
Africa 52
Producing companies 52
Salient statistics 52
Price 53
Trade 53
Imports 53
Exports 54
Mainland China 54
Producing companies 54
Salient statistics 57
Consumption 57
Dispersant applications 57
Concrete admixtures 57
Oil field chemicals 58
Binder and adhesive applications 58
Pelletizing 58
Ceramics, bricks, refractories, and foundry cores 58
Dust suppression 59
Price 59
Trade 59
Imports 60
Exports 60
Japan 61
Producing companies 61
Salient statistics 61
Consumption 61
Concrete admixtures 62
Dye dispersant, pigments, and inks 62
Ore briquetting 62
Other 62
Price 62
Trade 63
Other Asia and Oceania 63
Producing companies 63
Salient statistics 64
Trade 64
Additional resources 66
Revisions 67
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