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Lactic Acid, Its Salts and Esters

Chemical Economics Handbook

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

Executive summary 7
Summary 9
Introduction 16
Manufacturing processes 17
Fermentation lactic acid 17
Synthetic lactic acid 18
Future production technology 19
Environmental issues 20
Regulatory status 21
United States 21
Europe 22
Mainland China 24
Japan 24
Supply and demand by region 26
United States 26
Producing companies 26
Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) 26
Cargill and NatureWorks 27
Corbion 27
Salt and ester producers 27
Salient statistics 28
Production 28
Consumption 29
Polylactic acid 30
Food and beverages 31
Industrial applications 33
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products 34
Price 35
Trade 35
Imports 35
Exports 36
Canada 37
Salient statistics 37
Consumption 37
Trade 39
Imports 39
Exports 40
Mexico 41
Salient statistics 41
Consumption 41
Trade 43
Imports 43
Exports 44
Central and South America 44
Producing companies 44
Salient statistics 45
Consumption 46
Trade 48
Imports 48
Exports 49
Western Europe 51
Producing companies 51
Corbion (Purac) 53
Galactic 54
Jungbunzlauer 54
Salient statistics 54
Production 55
Consumption 56
Polylactic acid 57
Industrial applications 59
Food and beverages 60
Animal feed additives 61
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products 62
Price 62
Trade 63
Imports 63
Exports 65
Central Europe 67
Salient statistics 67
Consumption 68
Trade 69
CIS and Baltic States 71
Salient statistics 71
Consumption 73
Trade 74
Middle East 76
Salient statistics 76
Consumption 78
Trade 78
Africa 80
Salient statistics 80
Consumption 82
Trade 83
Indian Subcontinent 84
Producing companies 84
Salient statistics 85
Trade 86
Mainland China 87
Producing companies 87
Salient statistics 89
Consumption 90
Food and beverages 91
Polylactic acid 92
Industrial applications 93
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products 93
Animal feed additives 94
Price 94
Trade 95
Japan 97
Producing companies 97
Salient statistics 98
Consumption 99
Food and beverages 100
Industrial applications 101
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products 102
Polylactic acid 102
Musashino Chemical Laboratory 102
Teijin 102
Toyobo 103
Price 103
Trade 104
Other Northeast Asia 106
Salient statistics 106
Trade 107
Southeast Asia and Oceania 108
Producing companies 108
Corbion 109
NatureWorks LLC 110
Kerry Ingredients (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd. 110
Salient statistics 110
Consumption 111
Trade 113
Appendix—Geographic regions 115
Additional resources 116
Revisions 117
Data Workbook 118
Notice 119
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