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Lactic Acid, Its Salts and Esters

Chemical Economics Handbook

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

Executive summary5
Summary6
Introduction12
Manufacturing processes13
Fermentation lactic acid13
Synthetic lactic acid14
Future production technology14
Environmental issues16
Regulatory status17
United States17
Europe18
China20
Japan20
Supply and demand by region22
United States22
– Producing companies22
– Cargill and NatureWorks22
– Corbion22
– Salt and ester producers23
– Salient statistics23
– Production24
– Consumption25
– Polylactic acid25
– Food and beverages27
– Industrial applications28
– Pharmaceuticals and personal care products29
– Price30
– Trade31
– Imports31
– Exports33
Canada34
– Salient statistics34
– Consumption35
– Trade35
Mexico38
– Salient statistics38
– Consumption38
– Trade38
Central and South America40
– Producing companies40
– Salient statistics41
– Consumption41
– Trade42
Western Europe44
– Producing companies44
– Corbion (Purac)45
– Galactic46
– Jungbunzlauer46
– Technology developers47
– Cellulac47
– Plaxica47
– Salient statistics47
– Production48
– Consumption49
– Polylactic acid50
– Industrial applications53
– Food and beverages53
– Animal feed additives54
– Pharmaceuticals and personal care products55
– Price56
– Trade56
– Imports56
– Exports58
Central and Eastern Europe60
– Salient statistics60
– Consumption62
– Trade62
Middle East63
– Salient statistics63
– Consumption64
– Trade65
Africa66
– Salient statistics66
– Consumption67
– Trade67
China68
– Producing companies68
– Salient statistics70
– Consumption71
– Food and beverages71
– Polylactic acid72
– Industrial applications72
– Pharmaceuticals and personal care products73
– Price73
– Trade73
Japan75
– Producing companies75
– Salient statistics76
– Consumption77
– Food and beverages78
– Industrial applications79
– Pharmaceuticals and personal care products80
– Polylactic acid80
– Musashino Chemical Laboratory80
– Teijin81
– Toyobo81
– Price81
– Trade82
Other Asia85
– Producing companies85
– Corbion86
– NatureWorks LLC86
– Salient statistics86
– Consumption88
– Trade89
Oceania90
– Salient statistics90
– Consumption91
Additional resources93
Revisions94
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