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Chromium Compounds, Inorganic

Chemical Economics Handbook

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

Executive summary9
Summary10
Sodium dichromate10
Chromic acid (chromium trioxide)13
Chromium sulfate14
Chromium oxides15
Chrome pigments16
Introduction19
Manufacturing processes22
Sodium dichromate and chromate22
Chromic acid23
Chromium sulfate23
Chromium oxide23
Chromium dioxide24
Potassium dichromate/chromate24
Ammonium dichromate24
Lead chromate25
Process selection25
Chromium reclamation processes25
Environmental issues27
United States27
US Occupational Safety and Health Standards28
US Environmental Protection Agency Standards28
State and regional standards29
Europe29
Leather tanning30
Pigments30
Dyestuffs and textile dyeing31
Metal plating31
Wood preservation31
Business dynamics32
Supply and demand by region33
United States33
Producing companies33
Chromium recovery companies35
Production36
Salient statistics36
Sodium dichromate36
Chromic acid38
Chromium sulfate39
Chromium oxides40
Zinc or lead chromates41
Chrome pigments42
Consumption43
Sodium dichromate43
Metal treatment45
Corrosion control46
Other46
Chromic acid47
Metal finishing47
Wood preservatives48
Other50
Basic chromium sulfate50
Chromium oxides53
Chrome pigments54
Other56
Potassium dichromate and chromate56
Ammonium dichromate56
Price56
Trade59
Sodium dichromate and chromate61
Imports61
Exports61
Chromic acid62
Imports62
Exports63
Chromium sulfate64
Chromium oxides65
Potassium dichromate66
Zinc or lead chromate67
Other chromates and dichromates68
Chrome pigments69
Imports70
Exports71
Canada71
Producing companies71
Salient statistics72
Consumption72
Price73
Trade73
Sodium dichromate73
Chromic acid74
Chromium sulfate75
Chromium oxides76
Chrome pigments77
Chromates78
Mexico79
Producing companies79
Salient statistics80
Sodium dichromate80
Chromic acid80
Chromium sulfate81
Chromium oxides82
Chrome pigments83
Consumption84
Price85
Trade85
Sodium dichromate85
Chromic acid86
Chromium sulfate87
Chromium oxides88
Chrome pigments89
Central and South America90
Producing companies90
Salient statistics91
Sodium dichromate91
Chromic acid92
Chromium sulfate93
Chromium oxide94
Chromates and dichromates95
Chrome pigments96
Consumption97
Price98
Trade98
Sodium dichromate98
Imports98
Exports99
Chromic acid 100
Imports 100
Exports101
Chromium sulfate 102
Imports 102
Exports103
Chromium oxides 104
Imports 104
Exports 105
Chrome pigments 106
Imports 106
Exports107
Chromates 108
Western Europe 109
Producing companies 109
Production 112
Salient statistics 112
Sodium dichromate 112
Chromic acid 113
Chromium sulfate 114
Chromium oxides 115
Chromates and dichromates 116
Chrome pigments117
Consumption 119
Sodium dichromate 119
Chromic acid 121
Metal finishing 121
Wood treatment121
Basic chrome sulfate—leather tanning 121
Chromium oxides 122
Technical grades 122
Refractory materials 123
Pigment grades123
Chrome pigments 123
Other 123
Potassium chromate and dichromate 124
Ammonium dichromate 124
Chromium dioxide 124
Chrome lignosulfonate 125
Price 125
Trade 125
Imports 126
Sodium dichromate 126
Chromic acid 127
Chromium sulfate 129
Chromium oxides 130
Potassium dichromate 132
Chromates of zinc or lead 132
Chrome pigments 132
Exports 132
Sodium dichromate 133
Chromium sulfate 133
Chromium oxides 133
Potassium dichromate 134
Chromates of zinc or lead 134
Chrome pigments 134
Central and Eastern Europe 134
Producing companies 134
Salient statistics 136
Consumption 139
Sodium dichromate 139
Chromium oxides 140
Chromic acid 140
Leather industry 140
Chrome pigments 141
Trade 141
Sodium dichromate 141
Imports 141
Exports142
Chromic acid 143
Imports 143
Exports144
Chromium sulfate 145
Imports 145
Exports146
Chromium oxides 147
Imports 147
Exports148
Chrome pigments 149
Imports 150
Exports151
Other chromates and dichromates 152
Middle East and Africa 153
Producing companies 153
Salient statistics 154
Consumption 157
Trade 158
Sodium dichromate 159
Chromic acid 161
Chromium sulfate 162
Chromium oxides 163
Chrome pigments 164
Other 165
Potassium dichromate 165
Zinc or lead chromates 165
Other chromates and dichromates 165
China 166
Producing companies 166
Production 168
Salient statistics 169
Consumption 173
Sodium dichromate 173
Chromic acid 174
Basic chromium sulfate 174
Chrome oxide 175
Chrome pigments 175
Price 175
Trade 176
Imports 176
Exports 177
India 178
Producing companies 178
Production 180
Salient statistics 181
Consumption 184
Price 185
Trade 187
Imports 187
Exports 187
Japan 188
Producing companies 188
Salient statistics 189
Consumption 193
Sodium dichromate 193
Chromic acid 194
Chromium oxide 195
Potassium dichromate 196
Price 196
Trade198
Other Asia and Oceania 198
Producing companies 198
Salient statistics 199
Consumption 204
Trade204
Additional resources 206
Revisions 207
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