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Hydrogen

Chemical Economics Handbook

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

Executive summary7
Introduction13
Properties, grades, and form of supply14
Manufacturing processes16
Production processes16
Steam reforming of hydrocarbons16
Dissociation of hydrocarbons20
Electrolysis22
Other24
By-product generation24
New developments27
Hydrogen use as a primary energy source31
Supply and demand by region35
United States35
Producing companies35
Merchant hydrogen producers35
Liquid hydrogen producers35
Gaseous hydrogen producers37
Pipeline systems46
Captive hydrogen producers52
By-product hydrogen producers59
Production62
Consumption62
Petroleum refining64
Hydrogen production67
Hydrogen consumption68
Chemicals69
Metals73
Electronics74
Edible fats and oils75
Government77
Public utilities79
Cooling79
Corrosion prevention79
Float glass82
Other84
Price85
Trade87
Canada90
Producing companies90
Merchant hydrogen producers90
Liquid hydrogen producers90
Gaseous hydrogen producers90
Pipeline systems91
Captive hydrogen producers93
By-product hydrogen producers94
Consumption96
Trade97
Mexico99
Producing companies99
Salient statistics 102
Trade 102
Central and South America 103
Western Europe 106
Producing companies 108
Merchant hydrogen producers 108
Liquid hydrogen producers 108
Gaseous hydrogen producers 109
Pipeline systems 115
Captive hydrogen producers 120
By-product hydrogen producers 126
Production capacity 133
Production 135
Consumption 138
Gaseous hydrogen 141
Ammonia 141
Petroleum refining 141
Methanol 142
Metals production 142
Aniline 142
Hydrogen peroxide 142
Oxo chemicals 143
Cyclohexane 143
Toluene diisocyanate—TDI 143
Fats and oils 143
Hexamethylenediamine—HMDA 143
Hydrochloric acid 143
Fatty alcohols 143
Caprolactam 143
1,4-Butanediol—BDO 144
Float glass 144
Transportation/hydrogen projects 144
Electronics 146
Adipic acid 147
Liquid hydrogen 147
Space industry 147
Fuel 147
Semiconductors and thin-film solar 148
Price 148
Trade 149
Central Europe 151
Producing companies 151
Merchant gaseous hydrogen producers 151
Captive hydrogen producers 152
By-product hydrogen producers 154
Production capacity 155
Production 156
Consumption 158
Ammonia 159
Petroleum refining 159
Methanol 159
Eastern Europe 160
Producing companies 160
Merchant gaseous hydrogen producers 160
Captive hydrogen producers 160
By-product hydrogen producers 162
Production capacity 164
Production 165
Consumption 166
Ammonia 167
Petroleum refining 167
Methanol 167
Gas-to-liquids (GTL) 168
Middle East 168
Producing companies 168
Merchant gaseous hydrogen producers 168
Captive hydrogen producers 169
By-product hydrogen producers 171
Production capacity 173
Production 175
Consumption 176
Ammonia 178
Gas-to-liquids (GTL) 178
Petroleum refining 178
Methanol 178
Africa 178
Producing companies 178
Merchant gaseous hydrogen producers 178
Captive hydrogen producers 179
By-product hydrogen producers 180
Production capacity 181
Production 183
Consumption 184
Ammonia 185
Gas-to-liquids (GTL) 185
Petroleum refining 185
Methanol 185
Southwest Asia 186
Producing companies 186
Salient statistics 188
Bangladesh 188
India 188
Pakistan 188
Consumption 188
Trade 189
China 190
Producing companies 190
Production 198
Consumption 200
Chemicals 200
Ammonia 200
Methanol 200
Hydrochloric acid 201
Hydrogen peroxide 201
Aniline 201
Cyclohexane 201
Caprolactam 201
n-Butanol 201
2-Ethylhexyl alcohol 201
1,4-Butanediol 201
Hexamethylenediamine—HMDA 201
Petroleum refining 202
Float glass 202
Metals 203
Fats and oils 203
Electronics 203
Other 204
Price 204
Trade 204
Japan 207
Producing companies 207
Merchant hydrogen producers 207
Liquid hydrogen producers 207
Gaseous hydrogen producers 208
Captive hydrogen producers 210
Hydrogen fuel cell filling stations 211
Production 212
Consumption 213
Electronics 214
Metals 214
Fats and oils 214
Glass 215
Price 215
Trade 215
Other Asia 216
Northeast Asia 216
Producing companies 216
Salient statistics 218
South Korea 218
Taiwan 219
Consumption 219
Southeast Asia 220
Producing companies 220
Salient statistics 223
Consumption 223
Trade 224
Oceania 225
Producing companies 225
Salient statistics 226
Australia 226
New Zealand 226
Consumption 226
Trade 226
Appendix 228
Bibliography 229
Revisions 230
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