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Hydrochloric Acid

Chemical Economics Handbook

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

Executive summary 7
Summary 8
United States 11
Western Europe 11
Japan 11
China 12
Introduction 13
Manufacturing processes 15
Coproduct hydrochloric acid 15
Organic sources 15
Inorganic sources 18
From chlorine and hydrogen 18
From salt and sulfuric acid 18
Mannheim process 18
Hargreaves process 18
Fluidized-bed process 18
Waste incineration 19
Environmental issues 20
Supply and demand by region 21
United States 21
Producing companies 21
Salient statistics 27
Production 28
Coproduct sources 30
Vinyl chloride monomer 30
Isocyanates 30
Fluorocarbons 30
Chlorinated ethanes 32
Chlorinated methanes 32
Other 33
Chlorine and hydrogen –34
Consumption 34
Anhydrous hydrogen chloride 37
Ethylene dichloride 37
Methyl chloride (silicones) 37
Other 37
Aqueous hydrochloric acid (muriatic acid) 38
Food 38
Oil well acidizing 39
Calcium chloride 40
Brine treating 41
Steel pickling 41
Silicones 42
Swimming pools 42
Other 42
Price 44
Trade 47
Imports 47
Exports 47
Canada 48
Producing companies 48
Salient statistics 50
Consumption 50
Captive 52
Merchant 52
Oil well acidizing 52
Other 52
Price 52
Trade 53
Mexico 55
Producing companies 55
Salient statistics 55
Production 56
Consumption 57
Captive 59
Merchant 59
Price 59
Trade 59
Central and South America 60
Producing companies 60
Salient statistics 62
Production 63
Argentina 65
Brazil 66
Venezuela 67
Consumption 68
Trade 70
Imports 70
Exports 71
Western Europe 72
Producing companies 72
Producers 72
Analysis 80
Salient statistics 82
Production 82
Consumption 84
Organic chemicals 85
Inorganic chemicals 86
Nonchemical applications 86
Price 87
Trade 88
Central Europe 90
Producing companies 90
Salient statistics 94
Production 95
Consumption 95
Trade 96
Eastern Europe 96
Producing companies 97
Salient statistics 101
Trade 102
Middle East 102
Producing companies 102
Salient statistics 107
Trade 107
Africa 108
Producing companies 108
Salient statistics 111
Trade 111
China 111
Producing companies 111
Salient statistics 115
Production 116
Consumption 116
Price 117
Trade 117
Japan 118
Producing companies 118
Salient statistics 120
Production 120
Consumption 121
Price 124
Trade 125
Other Asia 126
Producing companies 126
Production 129
Consumption 129
Trade 130
Imports 130
Exports 131
Additional resources 132
Revisions 133
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