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Helium

Chemical Economics Handbook

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

Executive summary 7
Summary 9
Introduction 14
Business dynamics 15
Logistics 16
Delivery forms 16
Storage 17
Product substitution 17
Recycling/reuse 18
Manufacturing processes 20
Major applications 23
Liquid 23
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) 23
Science and research 25
Particle physics research 25
GPS 25
Nuclear fission and fusion reactors 25
Other cryogenic 26
Gas 26
Semiconductors 26
Fiber optics (optical glass fibers) 27
Metals processing 27
Welding 28
Metal hardening 28
Plasma spraying 28
Lifting gas 28
Leak detection 29
Analytical gas 30
Pressuring and purging 30
Breathing mixtures 30
Other 31
Gas lasers 31
Airbags 31
Hard disk drives 31
Scanning helium ion microscopy 32
Food additive 32
Helium-3 3232
Supply and demand by region 34
World 34
Reserves and resources 34
Producing companies 36
Capacity 44
Salient statistics 46
Supply 48
Consumption 51
Trade 52
North America 56
Overview 56
Salient statistics 56
Consumption 57
United States 58
Producing companies 58
Salient statistics 65
Consumption 66
Government use 71
Helium-3 7272
Price 73
Trade 75
Canada 76
Mexico 78
Central and South America 78
Western Europe 81
Producing companies 81
Air Liquide 81
Air Products 81
Linde 81
Matheson Global Helium 81
Messer 81
Uniper 82
Woikoski 82
Salient statistics 82
Consumption 83
Price 84
Trade 84
Central Europe 86
Producing companies 87
Salient statistics 87
Production 88
Price 88
Trade 89
CIS and Baltic States 91
Producing companies 91
Kazakhstan 91
Russia 91
Irkutsk 92
Orenburg 92
Siberia 92
Salient statistics 94
Production 95
Price 96
Trade 96
Middle East 98
Producing companies 99
Iran 99
Qatar 99
Saudi Arabia 100
Distributors 100
Air Liquide 100
Air Products 100
Global Gases Group 101
Gulf Helium Services 101
Linde 101
Salient statistics 101
Price 102
Trade 103
Africa 104
Producing companies 105
Algeria 105
Arzew–Hélios 105
Skikda–Helison 105
South Africa 105
Tanzania 106
Salient statistics 106
Price 107
Trade 108
Mainland China 109
Producing companies 109
Salient statistics 111
Consumption 112
Liquid 112
Gas 112
Semiconductor/electronics 113
Fiber optics 113
Metals processing 113
Other 113
Price 113
Trade 113
Japan 114
Producing companies 114
Salient statistics 115
Consumption 116
Gas 118
Liquid 119
Price 119
Trade 119
Other Asia 120
Summary 120
Salient statistics 120
Consumption 121
Indian Subcontinent 122
Producing companies 122
Salient statistics 122
Consumption 123
Price 123
Trade 124
Northeast Asia 125
Producing companies 125
Salient statistics 126
Consumption 126
Price 126
Trade 127
Southeast Asia 129
Producing companies 129
Salient statistics 130
Consumption 130
Price 131
Trade 131
Oceania 133
Producing companies 133
Salient statistics 133
Consumption 133
Trade 134
Additional resources 136
Revisions 137
Data Workbook 138
Notice 139
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