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Helium

Chemical Economics Handbook

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

Executive summary7
Summary9
Introduction13
Business dynamics13
Logistics14
Delivery forms15
Storage 15
Product substitution16
Recycling/reuse17
Manufacturing processes18
Major applications 21
Liquid 21
MRI and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) 21
Science and research 23
Particle physics research 23
GPS 23
Nuclear reactors 23
Other cryogenic 24
Gas 24
Semiconductors24
Fiber optics (optical glass fibers)25
Metals processing25
Welding 26
Metal hardening 26
Plasma spraying 26
Lifting gas 26
Leak detection 27
Analytical gas 28
Pressuring and purging 28
Breathing mixtures28
Other 29
Gas lasers 29
Airbags 29
Hard disk drives30
Scanning helium ion microscopy30
Food additive30
Helium-3 30
Supply and demand by region 32
World 32
Reserves and resources 32
Producing companies 35
Capacity 40
Salient statistics 42
Supply 43
Consumption 45
Trade 47
North America 49
Salient statistics 49
Consumption 50
United States 51
Producing companies 51
Salient statistics 56
Consumption 57
Government use 61
Helium-3 63
Price 63
Trade 65
Canada 67
Central and South America 67
Western Europe 69
Producing companies 69
Air Liquide 69
Linde 69
Matheson Global Helium 69
Messer 70
Woikoski 70
Salient statistics 70
Consumption 71
Price 72
Trade 73
Central Europe 75
Producing companies 76
Salient statistics 76
Production 77
Price 78
Trade 78
Eastern Europe 80
Producing companies 81
Kazakhstan81
Russia 81
Irkutsk 81
Orenburg 81
Siberia 82
Salient statistics 84
Production 85
Price 86
Trade 86
Middle East 88
Producing companies 89
Iran 89
Qatar 89
Distributors 90
Air Liquide 90
Air Products 90
Global Gases Group 90
Gulf Helium Services 90
Linde 91
Salient statistics 91
Price91
Trade 92
Africa 94
Producing companies 94
Arzew–Hélios 94
Skikda–Helison 95
South Africa 95
Tanzania95
Salient statistics 96
Price 96
Trade97
Japan 99
Producing companies 99
Salient statistics 100
Consumption 101
Gas 103
Liquid 104
Price 104
Trade 105
China 106
Producing companies 106
Salient statistics 107
Consumption 108
Liquid 109
Gas 109
Fiber optics 109
Semiconductor/electronics 109
Metals processing 110
Other 110
Price 110
Trade 110
Other Asia 111
Producing companies 111
Salient statistics 112
Consumption 114
Northeast Asia 115
Southeast Asia116
Southwest Asia 117
Trade 117
Oceania 119
Producing companies 119
Salient statistics 119
Consumption 120
Additional resources 121
Revisions 122
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