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Fluorocarbons

Chemical Economics Handbook

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

Executive summary 7
Summary 8
Industry structure and dynamics 14
Introduction and nomenclature 17
Environmental issues 23
Montreal Protocol and ozone depletion 23
Kyoto Protocol and global warming 24
Montreal Protocol and climate protection (Kigali Amendment) 26
United States 28
EPA regulations 28
New substitute for HFC-134a in motor vehicle air conditioning33
Reclamation and reuse33
European Union 34
Mainland China37
CFC phaseout37
HCFC phaseout 40
HFC phasedown 41
Japan 42
Developing countries 44
Manufacturing processes 45
Supply and demand by region 48
North America 48
Producing companies 48
Salient statistics 49
Consumption 50
Refrigeration and air conditioning51
Commercial and industrial refrigeration 58
Stationary air-conditioning 59
Mobile air-conditioning 60
Household refrigerators and freezers 62
Polymer precursors 62
Fluoropolymers 64
Fluoroelastomers 65
Foam blowing agents 66
Aerosol propellants 69
Solvent cleaning 71
Other 73
Price 73
Trade 74
United States 74
Canada 76
Mexico 76
Central and South America 76
Producing companies 76
Salient statistics 77
Consumption 78
Trade 79
Europe 80
Producing companies 80
Salient statistics 82
Production 82
Consumption 82
Polymer precursors 85
Fluoropolymers 87
Fluoroelastomers 88
Refrigeration and air-conditioning 88
Mobile air-conditioning 90
Stationary air-conditioning systems 91
Refrigeration 91
Foam blowing agents 92
Extruded polystyrene foam (XPS) 94
Polyurethane boards 94
Polyurethane flexible foams 94
Polyurethane spray foams 94
Appliances 94
Aerosol propellants 95
Solvent cleaning and other 96
Price 97
Trade 97
Imports 97
Exports 98
Other Europe and CIS 99
Producing companies 99
Salient statistics 100
Consumption 100
Trade 101
Middle East and Africa 102
Consumption 103
Trade 103
Indian Subcontinent 104
Producing companies 104
Salient statistics 105
Consumption 106
Mainland China 107
Producing companies 107
Salient statistics 113
HCFCs 114
HFCs 116
HFOs 117
Consumption 117
HCFCs by type 118
HCFC-22119
HCFC-141b119
HCFC-142b119
HCFCs by market 119
Polymer precursors 120
Refrigeration and air-conditioning 122
Foam blowing agents 122
Solvent, aerosol, and other 123
HFCs 123
HCFC-142b/VDF conversion 125142,125
Refrigeration and air-conditioning 125
Foam blowing agents 127
Other 127
HFOs 127
Price 128
Trade 129
Northeast Asia 131
Producing companies 131
Japan 133
South Korea and Taiwan 134
Salient statistics 134
Production 135
Consumption 137
Japan 138
Polymer precursors 141
Refrigeration and air-conditioning 141
Foam blowing agents 142
Solvent cleaning 143
Aerosol propellants 144
Price 144
Trade 145
Imports 145
Exports 146
Southeast Asia 146
Salient statistics 147
Consumption 147
Trade 148
Appendix I—Ozone depletion and fluorocarbons 149
Appendix II—Global warming and fluorocarbons 151
Additional resources 153
Revisions 154
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