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Ethanol

Chemical Economics Handbook

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

Executive summary7
Summary8
Introduction13
Manufacturing processes15
Synthetic production15
Direct hydration of ethylene15
Fischer-Tropsch conversion15
Hydrogenation of acetic acid16
Production by fermentation16
Fermentation ethanol from traditional feedstocks16
Wet milling process17
Dry milling process18
By-products18
Cellulosic ethanol20
Research and development21
Major production cost components22
Environmental and social issues23
Regulatory status25
United States25
Brazil27
Western Europe28
China29
Japan30
India30
Indonesia31
Thailand32
Supply and demand by region33
United States33
Producing companies33
Salient statistics51
Production51
Consumption55
Motor fuel56
Legislation 1977–200459
Legislation 2005–0662
Legislation 2007–0862
Legislation 2009–1165
Legislation 2012–1467
Legislation 2015–1767
Future developments68
Economic issues70
Chemical raw materials70
ETBE71
Vinegar71
Ethyl acrylate72
Ethylamines72
Ethyl acetate72
Glycol ethers73
Acetaldehyde73
Alkoxylates73
Other chemical uses73
Solvent applications74
Human consumption76
Other76
Price76
Fuel ethanol76
Industrial ethanol78
Trade79
Canada81
Producing companies81
Production84
Consumption84
Trade85
Mexico86
Caribbean Basin87
Brazil91
Producing companies91
Salient statistics94
Production95
Consumption98
Fuel98
Industrial 103
Ethylene 103
ETBE 104
Acetic acid and esters 104
Other 104
Price 104
Trade 108
Other South America 109
Argentina 112
Chile 113
Colombia 113
Ecuador 113
Paraguay 114
Peru 114
Uruguay 114
Western Europe 114
Producing companies 114
Salient statistics 123
Production 124
Synthetic 125
Fermentation 125
First-generation fermentation processes 125
Advanced/second-generation production 126
Consumption 127
Motor fuel 128
European legislation 130
Taxation 132
Ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) 132
Direct blending 133
Solvent applications 134
Beverage/potable 135
Chemical raw materials 136
Acetic acid/vinegar 136
Ethyl acrylate 137
Acetaldehyde 137
Ethylamines 137
Ethyl acetate 138
Glycol ethers 138
Other 138
Price 139
Trade 140
Imports 140
Exports 141
Central and Eastern Europe 142
Producing companies 142
Salient statistics 148
Bulgaria 149
Czech Republic 149
Hungary 149
Kazakhstan 149
Poland 150
Romania 150
Russia 150
Slovakia 151
Ukraine 151
Price 151
Trade 152
Imports 152
Exports 153
Middle East 154
Producing companies 154
Salient statistics 156
Iran 156
Iraq 157
Israel 157
Oman 157
Saudi Arabia 157
Turkey 157
Price 158
Trade 158
Imports 158
Exports 159
Africa 161
Producing companies 161
Salient statistics 166
Angola 167
Egypt 168
Ethiopia 168
Ghana 168
Kenya 169
Malawi 169
Mozambique 169
Nigeria 170
Senegal 170
Sierra Leone 170
South Africa 171
Sudan 171
Zambia 171
Zimbabwe 172
Price 172
Trade 173
Imports 173
Exports 173
Japan 175
Producing companies 175
Production 177
Consumption 178
Human consumption 180
Solvent applications 180
Chemical raw materials 180
Fuels 181
Price 182
Trade 182
China 183
Producing companies 183
Salient statistics 188
Consumption 189
Motor fuels 189
Alcoholic beverages 191
Solvent and chemical uses 191
Other 191
Price 191
Trade 192
India 192
Producing companies 192
Salient statistics 200
Consumption 200
Price 201
Trade 201
Other Asia 201
Producing companies 202
Salient statistics 207
Indonesia 207
Malaysia 208
Pakistan 208
Philippines 208
Singapore 209
South Korea 210
Taiwan 210
Thailand 211
Vietnam 212
Oceania 214
Producing companies 214
Salient statistics 215
Australia 215
New Zealand 216
Appendix 218
Bibliography 219
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