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Ethanol

Chemical Economics Handbook

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

Executive summary 9
Summary 11
Introduction 17
Manufacturing processes 20
Synthetic production 20
Direct hydration of ethylene 20
Fischer-Tropsch conversion 20
Hydrogenation of acetic acid 21
Production by fermentation 21
Fermentation ethanol from traditional feedstocks 21
Wet milling process 22
Dry milling process 23
By-products 24
Cellulosic ethanol 25
Research and development 26
Major production cost components 28
Environmental and social issues 29
Regulatory status 31
United States 31
Brazil 33
Western Europe 35
Mainland China 36
Japan 37
India 38
Indonesia 39
Thailand 40
Supply and demand by region 41
United States 41
Producing companies 41
Salient statistics 63
Production 63
Consumption 65
Motor fuel 67
Legislation 19772004 69 1977,2004,69
Legislation 200506 71 2005,06,71
Legislation 200708 71 2007,08,71
Legislation 200911 74 2009,11,74
Legislation 201214 76 2012,14,76
Legislation 201520 76 2015,20,76
Future developments 77
Economic issues 79
Chemical raw materials 79
ETBE 80
Vinegar 80
Ethyl acrylate 81
Ethylamines 81
Ethyl acetate 82
Glycol ethers 82
Acetaldehyde 83
Alkoxylates 83
Other chemical uses 83
Solvent applications 84
Human consumption 86
Other 86
Price 86
Fuel ethanol 86
Industrial ethanol 88
Trade 89
Canada 91
Producing companies 91
Production 95
Consumption 95
Trade 96
Mexico 97
Brazil 98
Producing companies 98
Salient statistics 102
Production 103
Consumption 107
Fuel 107
Industrial 111
Ethylene 111
ETBE 112
Acetic acid and esters 112
Other 112
Price 113
Trade 116
Other South America 116
Argentina 119
Chile 119
Colombia 119
Ecuador 120
Paraguay 120
Peru 121
Uruguay 121
Caribbean Basin 121
Western Europe 124
Producing companies 124
Salient statistics 135
Production 135
Synthetic 136
Fermentation 137
First-generation fermentation processes 137
Advanced/second-generation production 139
Consumption 139
Motor fuel 141
European legislation 144
Taxation 146
Ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) 146
Direct blending 147
Solvent applications 148
Beverage/potable 149
Chemical raw materials 150
Acetic acid/vinegar 150
Ethyl acrylate 151
Acetaldehyde 151
Ethylamines 151
Ethyl acetate 152
Glycol ethers 152
Other 153
Price 153
Trade 154
Imports 154
Exports 155
Central Europe 156
Producing companies 156
Salient statistics 161
Bulgaria 162
Czechia 162
Hungary 162
Poland 162
Romania 163
Slovakia 163
Consumption 163
Fuel ethanol 164
Solvent applications 165
Potable alcohol beverages and raw materials for chemicals 165
Price 166
Trade 166
Imports 166
Exports 167
CIS and Baltic States 168
Producing companies 168
Salient statistics 171
Kazakhstan 171
Russia 171
Ukraine 172
Consumption 172
Motor fuel 173
Chemical raw materials 174
Price 174
Trade 174
Imports 174
Exports 175
Middle East 176
Producing companies 176
Salient statistics 178
Iran 178
Iraq 179
Israel 179
Oman 179
Saudi Arabia 179
Turkey 180
Price 180
Trade 181
Imports 181
Exports 182
Africa 183
Producing companies 183
Salient statistics 188
Angola 189
Egypt 189
Ethiopia 189
Ghana 190
Kenya 190
Malawi 190
Mozambique 191
Nigeria 191
Senegal 191
Sierra Leone 192
South Africa 192
Sudan 193
Zambia 193
Zimbabwe 193
Price 194
Trade 194
Imports 194
Exports 195
Indian Subcontinent 196
Producing companies 196
Salient statistics 205
Consumption 206
India 206
Pakistan 206
Price 207
Trade 207
Northeast Asia 207
Mainland China 207
Producing companies 207
Salient statistics 213
Consumption 213
Motor fuels 214
Alcoholic beverages 217
Solvent applications 217
Chemical raw materials 218
Other 219
Price 219
Trade 220
Japan 221
Producing companies 221
Salient statistics 223
Production 223
Consumption 224
Human consumption 225
Solvent applications 226
Chemical raw materials 226
Fuels 227
Price 228
Trade 228
Other Northeast Asia 229
Producing companies 229
Salient statistics 230
South Korea 230
Taiwan 231
Consumption 232
Price 232
Trade 232
Southeast Asia and Oceania 233
Producing companies 233
Salient statistics 238
Consumption 238
Indonesia 239
Malaysia 240
Philippines 240
Singapore 242
Thailand 242
Vietnam 244
Oceania 245
Australia 245
New Zealand 247
Appendix 249
Additional resources 250
Revisions 251
Data Workbook 252
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