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Chlorine-Sodium Hydroxide (Chlor-Alkali)

Chemical Economics Handbook

Contents

Executive summary 7
Summary 9
Salient statistics 11
Chlorine 11
Caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) 14
Capacity 16
Chlorine 16
Caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) 18
Production 18
Chlorine 18
Caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) 18
Consumption 19
Chlorine 19
Caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) 26
Price 27
Trade 28
Introduction 34
Manufacturing processes 35
Coproduction of chlorine and caustic 35
Diaphragm cell 35
Mercury cell 36
Membrane cell 37
Without coproduction of either chlorine or caustic 38
Chlorine 38
Chlorine from hydrogen chloride 38
Chlorine as a by-product of metal production 39
Chlorine coproduction with potassium hydroxide 39
Other chlorine production processes 39
Caustic/sodium hydroxide 39
Major end uses 40
Chlorine 40
Vinyls 40
Propylene oxide and phosgene 40
Epichlorohydrin 41
Intermediate chemicals 41
Chlorinated methanes 42
Chlorinated ethanes 42
Inorganic chemicals 44
Water treatment 46
Pulp and paper 47
Other 47
Sodium hydroxide (caustic) 48
Pulp and paper 50
Alumina 50
Propylene oxide 50
Polycarbonates 51
Epichlorohydrin 51
Organic chemicals 51
Inorganic chemicals 52
Soaps and detergents 54
Textiles 55
Water treatment 56
Other 56
Environmental issues 60
Supply and demand by region 62
North America 62
Overview 62
Capacity 62
Salient statistics 63
Production 64
Consumption 66
Trade 70
United States 73
Producing companies 73
Salient statistics 78
Consumption 80
Trade 83
Canada 85
Producing companies 85
Salient statistics 86
Consumption 88
Trade 91
Mexico 92
Producing companies 93
Salient statistics 94
Consumption 96
Trade 99
South America 100
Producing companies 102
Salient statistics 107
Production 109
Consumption 111
Trade 117
Europe 118
Western Europe 119
Producing companies 119
Salient statistics 128
Consumption 130
Trade 133
Central Europe 135
Producing companies 136
Salient statistics 139
Production 141
Consumption 143
Trade 147
CIS and Baltic States 149
Producing companies 150
Salient statistics 153
Production 155
Consumption 157
Trade 161
Middle East 162
Producing companies 163
Salient statistics 168
Production 169
Consumption 171
Trade 175
Africa 177
Producing companies 178
Salient statistics 181
Production 183
Consumption 185
Trade 188
Indian Subcontinent 190
Producing companies 191
Salient statistics 195
Production 197
Consumption 199
Trade 204
Northeast Asia 206
Overview 207
Capacity 207
Salient statistics 209
Production 211
Consumption 213
Trade 217
Mainland China 219
Producing companies 220
Salient statistics 233
Consumption 235
Trade 238
Japan 239
Producing companies 240
Salient statistics 242
Consumption 244
Trade 246
South Korea 248
Producing companies 248
Salient statistics 250
Consumption 252
Trade 254
Taiwan 256
Producing companies 256
Salient statistics 258
Consumption 259
Trade 261
Southeast Asia 263
Producing companies 264
Salient statistics 269
Production 270
Consumption 272
Trade 277
Additional resources 280
Revisions 281
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