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Chlorine-Sodium Hydroxide (Chlor-Alkali)

Chemical Economics Handbook

Contents

Executive summary 7
Summary 9
Salient statistics 11
Chlorine 11
Caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) 14
Capacity 16
Chlorine 16
Caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) 18
Production 18
Chlorine 18
Caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) 18
Consumption 19
Chlorine 19
Caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) 25
Price 27
Trade 28
Introduction 34
Manufacturing processes 35
Coproduction of chlorine and caustic 35
Diaphragm cell 35
Mercury cell 36
Membrane cell 37
Without coproduction of either chlorine or caustic 38
Chlorine 38
Chlorine from hydrogen chloride 38
Chlorine as a by-product of metal production 39
Chlorine coproduction with potassium hydroxide 39
Other chlorine production processes 39
Caustic/sodium hydroxide 39
Major end uses 40
Chlorine 40
Vinyls 40
Propylene oxide and phosgene 40
Epichlorohydrin 41
Intermediate chemicals 41
Chlorinated methanes 42
Chlorinated ethanes 42
Inorganic chemicals 44
–Water treatment 46
Pulp and paper 47
Other 47
Sodium hydroxide (caustic) 48
Pulp and paper 49
Alumina 50
Propylene oxide 50
Polycarbonates 51
Epichlorohydrin 51
Organic chemicals 51
Inorganic chemicals 52
Soaps and detergents 54
Textiles 55
–Water treatment 56
Other 56
Environmental issues 60
Supply and demand by region 62
North America 62
Overview 62
Capacity 62
Salient statistics 63
Production 65
Consumption 66
Trade 70
United States 72
Producing companies 72
Salient statistics 77
Consumption 79
Trade 81
Canada 83
Producing companies 83
Salient statistics 84
Consumption 86
Trade 88
Mexico 90
Producing companies 90
Salient statistics 91
Consumption 93
Trade 95
South America 97
Producing companies 97
Salient statistics 102
Production 103
Consumption 105
Trade 109
Europe 111
–Western Europe 111
Producing companies 112
Salient statistics 121
Consumption 122
Trade 125
Central Europe 127
Producing companies 127
Salient statistics 131
Production 133
Consumption 135
Trade 139
CIS and Baltic States 141
Producing companies 142
Salient statistics 145
Production 147
Consumption 149
Trade 153
Middle East 155
Producing companies 156
Salient statistics 161
Production 162
Consumption 164
Trade 168
Africa 170
Producing companies 171
Salient statistics 174
Production 176
Consumption 178
Trade 181
Indian Subcontinent 183
Producing companies 184
Salient statistics 188
Production 190
Consumption 192
Trade 197
Northeast Asia 198
Overview 199
Capacity 199
Salient statistics 201
Production 203
Consumption 205
Trade 209
Mainland China 211
Producing companies 212
Salient statistics 224
Consumption 227
Trade 230
Japan 231
Producing companies 231
Salient statistics 234
Consumption 235
Trade 237
South Korea 239
Producing companies 239
Salient statistics 241
Consumption 243
Trade 245
Taiwan 247
Producing companies 247
Salient statistics 249
Consumption 251
Trade 253
Southeast Asia 255
Producing companies 256
Salient statistics 260
Production 262
Consumption 264
Trade 268
Additional resources 271
Revisions 272
Data Workbook 273
Notice 274
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