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Carbon Dioxide

Chemical Economics Handbook

Table of Contents

Executive summary 8
Summary 9
Introduction 12
Conversion factors 13
Manufacturing processes 14
Sources 14
Industrial by-product 14
Hydrogen 14
Ethanol 15
Substitute natural gas 16
Ethylene oxide 16
Other 16
Natural 17
Production (recovery and purification) processes 18
Transportation and storage 22
Environmental issues 23
Supply and demand by region 31
World 31
Salient statistics 31
Consumption 32
United States 36
Producing companies 36
Production and shipments 53
Consumption 54
Liquid and solid carbon dioxide 55
Food industry 55
Beverage carbonation 59
Oil and gas recovery 61
Other 62
Gaseous carbon dioxide 72
Pipelined for oil and gas recovery 72
Captive for chemical manufacture 86
Price 88
Bulk liquid carbon dioxide 88
Pipelined gaseous carbon dioxide 89
Trade 90
Canada 91
Producing companies 91
Salient statistics 94
Consumption 95
Price 99
Trade 99
Mexico 100
Producing companies 100
Salient statistics 101
Consumption 103
Price 104
Trade 105
Central and South America 106
Producing companies 106
Salient statistics 110
Western Europe 111
Producing companies 111
Salient statistics 124
Production 126
Consumption 128
Gaseous carbon dioxide 131
Urea 131
Power-to-X 131
Chemicals 132
Biological conversion 132
CO2 capture from flue gas 133 2,133
Carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) 133
Liquid carbon dioxide 135
Beverage carbonation 135
Food industry 135
Water treatment 136
Mixed gases/aerosols 136
Welding and cutting 137
Firefighting 137
Medical applications 137
Foundry 137
Rubber and plastics 138
Other 138
Solid carbon dioxide 140
Price 141
Trade 143
Imports 143
Exports 143
Central Europe 144
Producing companies 144
Salient statistics 148
Production 150
Consumption 151
Price 154
Trade 155
Imports 155
Exports 155
Eastern Europe 156
Producing companies 156
Salient statistics 162
Production 164
Consumption 165
Price 167
Trade 168
Imports 168
Exports 169
Middle East 169
Producing companies 169
Salient statistics 177
Production 178
Consumption 180
Price 182
Trade 183
Imports 183
Exports 184
Africa 184
Producing companies 184
Salient statistics 191
Production 192
Consumption 194
Price 196
Trade 197
Imports 197
Exports 197
Southwest Asia 198
Producing companies 198
Salient statistics 201
Production 201
Consumption 202
Trade 203
Mainland China 204
Producing companies 204
Salient statistics 210
Production 211
Consumption 212
Liquid carbon dioxide 215
Welding and cutting 216
Beverage carbonation 216
Food industry 216
Oil and gas recovery 216
Cigarettes 216
Rubber and plastic processing 217
Firefighting 217
Other 217
Solid carbon dioxide 217
Gaseous carbon dioxide 217
Urea 217
Sodium carbonate 217
Ammonium bicarbonate 218
Precipitated calcium carbonate 218
Other 218
Price 218
Trade 219
Japan 220
Producing companies 220
Salient statistics 223
Production 224
Consumption 225
Gaseous carbon dioxide 227
Carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) 227
Liquid carbon dioxide 229
Welding and cutting 229
Beverage carbonation 230
Food industry 230
Steelmaking 230
Other applications 230
Solid carbon dioxide 231
Price 231
Trade 232
Northeast Asia 233
Producing companies 233
Salient statistics 236
Production 237
Consumption 237
Trade 238
Southeast Asia 239
Producing companies 239
Salient statistics 242
Production 243
Consumption 244
Trade 244
Oceania 246
Producing companies 246
Salient statistics 247
Production 248
Consumption 248
Trade 250
Additional resources 252
Revisions 254
Data Workbook 255
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