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C2 Chlorinated Solvents

Chemical Economics Handbook

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

Executive summary 8
Summary 10
Industry overview 14
Perchloroethylene 16
Trichloroethylene 17
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 17
Recent and future trends 18
Manufacturing processes 19
PCE and/or TCE by chlorination of C2 chlorinated hydrocarbons 19
PCE and/or TCE by oxychlorination of C2 chlorinated hydrocarbons 19
PCE and TCE by chlorination of ethylene and thermal dehydrochlorination of product 20
PCE (and CCl4) by chlorination of C1-C3 hydrocarbons or their partially chlorinated derivatives 21
PCE and TCE by chlorination of acetylene 21
1,1,1-TCA from EDC via vinyl chloride 22
1,1,1-TCA from EDC via 1,1,2-trichloroethane 22
1,1,1-TCA by chlorination of ethane 23
Stabilization 23
Environmental issues and regulations 25
Regulations governing occupational exposure 25
United States 25
Western Europe 26
China 27
Japan 27
Regulations governing atmospheric pollution 27
United States 27
Perchloroethylene and trichloroethylene 27
Dry cleaning 28
Metal degreasing 29
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 30
Canada 30
Western Europe 30
China 30
Japan 32
Other US regulations affecting C2 chlorinated solvents 33
Environmental protocols 33
Montreal Protocol and ozone depletion 34
Kyoto Protocol and global warming 35
Montreal Protocol and climate protection (Kigali Amendment) 36
Impact on fluorocarbons 37
United States 37
Phaseout schedule 37
Reclamation and reuse 40
Europe 41
China 44
CFC phaseout 44
HCFC phaseout 45
HFC phasedown 45
Japan 46
Developing countries 48
Supply and demand by region 49
United States 49
Producing companies 49
Production 49
Salient statistics 49
Perchloroethylene 49
Trichloroethylene 50
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 50
Consumption 51
Perchloroethylene 52
Chemical intermediates (precursor) 52
Metal cleaning 54
Dry cleaning and textile processing 59
Other 59
Trichloroethylene 60
Chemical intermediates (precursor) 60
Metal cleaning 60
Other 61
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 61
Price 62
Trade 62
Imports 62
Exports 64
Canada 65
Consumption 65
Price 66
Trade 67
Imports 67
Exports 67
Mexico 68
Consumption 68
Price 69
Trade 69
Central and South America 70
Producing companies 70
Salient statistics 70
Perchloroethylene 70
Trichloroethylene 71
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 71
Consumption 72
Price 72
Trade 73
Imports 73
Perchloroethylene 73
Trichloroethylene 73
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 73
Exports 74
Western Europe 74
Producing companies 74
Salient statistics 75
Perchloroethylene 76
Trichloroethylene 77
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 78
Consumption 79
Perchloroethylene 79
Chemical intermediates (precursor) 80
Dry cleaning 80
Surface/metal cleaning 81
Trichloroethylene 81
Chemical intermediates (precursor) 82
Metal cleaning (vapor degreasing) 83
Other 83
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 84
Chemical intermediates (precursor) 84
Surface cleaning and other uses 85
Price 85
Trade 85
Imports 85
Exports 86
Central and Eastern Europe 87
Producing companies 87
Salient statistics 88
Perchloroethylene 89
Trichloroethylene 90
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 91
Consumption 92
Price 93
Trade 94
Imports 94
Exports 95
Middle East 95
Producing companies 95
Salient statistics 96
Perchloroethylene 96
Trichloroethylene 97
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 98
Consumption 99
Price 100
Trade 101
Imports 101
Exports 101
Africa 102
Producing companies 102
Salient statistics 102
Perchloroethylene 103
Trichloroethylene 104
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 105
Consumption 106
Price 107
Trade 108
Imports 108
Exports 108
Indian Subcontinent 109
Producing companies 109
Production 110
Supply and demand 110
Consumption 112
Trade 113
China 114
Producing companies 114
Production 116
Salient statistics 117
Perchloroethylene 117
Trichloroethylene 119
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 120
Consumption 120
Perchloroethylene 121
HFC-125 and CFC-113 122
Dry cleaning 122
Other 123
Trichloroethylene 123
HFC-134a and CFC-113 123
Degreasing for metals and electronics 123
Other 124
Price 124
Trade 126
Northeast Asia 129
Producing companies 129
Supply and demand 130
Production 132
Consumption 132
Japan 133
Perchloroethylene 134
Trichloroethylene 135
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 135
Price 136
Trade 139
Southeast Asia 140
Supply and demand 140
Consumption 142
Trade 142
Additional resources 144
Revisions 145
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