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Biodegradable Polymers

Chemical Economics Handbook

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

Executive summary5
Summary7
Introduction12
Compostability standards13
ASTM standards13
ASTM D640013
ASTM D669113
ASTM D686814
ASTM D708114
EN standards14
EN 1343214
EN 1499514
ISO standards14
ISO 1708814
ISO 1860615
ISO 1967915
Bio content test methods15
ASTM D686615
CEN/TS 16137:201115
ISO 1662015
Certifying organizations16
Biodegradable Products Institute (BPI)16
DIN CERTCO16
Japan BioPlastics Association17
TÜV Austria17
United States Department of Agriculture17
Sustainability18
Critical issues for biodegradable polymers18
Processing18
Recycling18
Contamination of the postconsumer PET recycle stream19
Oxo-degradable and enzyme-mediated degradable plastics19
Manufacturing processes21
Polybutylene adipate terephthalate21
Polybutylene succinate21
Polybutylene succinate adipate22
Polycaprolactone22
Polyglycolic acid23
Polyhydroxyalkanoates23
Polylactic acid23
Starch compounds24
Environmental issues and legislation25
North America25
Solid waste disposal patterns25
Legislation28
Western Europe29
Solid waste disposal patterns29
Legislation31
Central and Eastern Europe32
Asia34
China34
Legislation34
Consumer attitudes and behavior35
India35
Legislation35
Consumer attitudes and behavior36
Japan37
Legislation37
Consumer attitudes and behavior38
Malaysia38
Philippines38
Taiwan39
Thailand40
Vietnam41
Oceania41
Supply and demand by region42
North America42
Producing companies42
Salient statistics44
Production45
Consumption by type45
Consumption by market47
Food packaging, dishes, and cutlery48
Foam packaging49
Compost bags50
Paper coatings51
Agriculture and horticulture52
Other52
Price53
Trade53
Central and South America55
Producing companies55
Consumption55
Trade55
Western Europe56
Producing companies56
Salient statistics61
Production61
Consumption by type62
Consumption by market63
Shopping and produce bags65
Compost bags65
Food packaging, dishes, and cutlery65
Foam packaging65
Agriculture and horticulture65
Paper coatings66
Other66
Price67
Trade67
Central and Eastern Europe67
Middle East and Africa68
Asia and Oceania68
Producing companies68
China68
Japan72
Polylactic acid producers and processors74
PBS and PBSA producers75
PHBH, PGA, and copolyester producers76
Starch- and cellulose-based biodegradable polymer producers77
Nonbiodegradable bio-based polymers and bio-based chemical precursor producers77
South Korea79
S-EnPol: EnPol® PBS, PBSA, and PBAT80
WILLEAP: leafull® starch compounds80
Other bioplastic manufacturers80
Nonbiodegradable bioplastic manufacturer: SK Chemical80
Thailand81
PLA81
PBS82
Other biodegradable polymers82
Other Asia and Oceania82
India85
Malaysia86
Taiwan86
Salient statistics87
PLA88
Starch compounds89
PHAs90
PBS, PBSA, and PBAT90
Consumption by type91
Consumption by market92
Price94
Trade94
Appendix: Bio-based polymers95
Additional resources96
Revisions98
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