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Biodegradable Polymers

Chemical Economics Handbook

Table of Contents

Section Page Number

Executive summary 8
Summary 10
Introduction 18
Compostability standards 19
ASTM standards 19
ASTM D6400 1919
ASTM D6691 2020
ASTM D6868 2020
ASTM D7081 2020
EN standards 20
EN 13432 2020
EN 14995 2020
EN 17033 2121
ISO standards 21
ISO 17088 2121
ISO 18606 2121
ISO 19679 2121
Bio content test methods 22
ASTM D6866 2222
CEN/TS 16137:2011 2222
ISO 16620 2222
Certifying organizations 22
Biodegradable Products Institute (BPI) 22
DIN CERTCO 23
Japan BioPlastics Association 23
National Plastics Standardization Center 24
TÜV Austria 24
US Department of Agriculture 25
Manufacturing processes 26
Cellulose acetate 26
Polybutylene adipate terephthalate 26
Polybutylene succinate 27
Polybutylene succinate adipate 28
Polycaprolactone 28
Polyglycolic acid 29
Polyhydroxyalkanoates 29
Polylactic acid 29
Compounding 30
End of life 30
Starch compounds 30
Environmental issues and legislation 32
North America 32
Solid waste disposal patterns 32
Legislation 35
Central and South America 36
Solid waste disposal patterns 36
Legislation 37
Western Europe 37
Solid waste disposal patterns 37
Legislation 39
Central Europe 41
Solid waste disposal patterns 41
Legislation 43
CIS and Baltic States 44
Solid waste disposal patterns 44
Legislation 46
Middle East 46
Solid waste disposal patterns 46
Legislation 48
Africa 48
Solid waste disposal patterns 48
Legislation 48
India 48
Legislation 49
Consumer attitudes and behavior 50
Northeast Asia 50
Mainland China 50
Legislation 50
Consumer attitudes and behavior 52
Japan 52
Legislation 52
Consumer attitudes and behavior 53
Taiwan 54
Southeast Asia and Oceania 55
Malaysia 55
Philippines 56
Thailand 57
Vietnam 58
Oceania 59
Supply and demand by region 61
North America 61
Producing companies 61
Salient statistics 65
Production 66
Consumption by type 66
Consumption by market 68
Food packaging, dishes, and cutlery 69
Foam packaging 70
Compost bags 71
Paper coatings 72
Agriculture and horticulture 73
Other 73
Price 74
Trade 75
Central and South America 76
Producing companies 76
Consumption 76
Trade 77
Western Europe 78
Producing companies 78
Salient statistics 82
Production 84
Consumption by type 85
Consumption by market 86
Shopping and produce bags 88
Compost bags 88
Food packaging, dishes, and cutlery 88
Foam packaging 88
Agriculture and horticulture 89
Paper coatings 89
Other 89
Price 90
Trade 90
Central Europe 91
CIS and Baltic States 92
Middle East 94
Africa 94
Indian Subcontinent 95
Producing companies 95
Salient statistics 97
Consumption by type 97
Consumption by market 98
Trade 99
Northeast Asia 100
Mainland China 100
Producing companies 100
Salient statistics 107
Production 108
PLA 109
PBS, PBSA, and PBAT 109
Others 110
Consumption by type 110
Consumption by market 112
Shopping and produce bags 113
Food packaging, dishes, and cutlery 113
Compost bags 113
Others 113
Price 114
Trade 114
Japan 115
Producing companies 115
Polylactic acid producers and processors 116
PBS and PBSA producers 118
PHBH, PGA, and copolyester producers 118
Starch- and cellulose-based biodegradable polymer producers 120
Nonbiodegradable bio-based polymers and bio-based chemical precursor producers 120
Salient statistics 122
Consumption 124
Consumption by type 124
Consumption by market 125
Price 126
Other Northeast Asia 126
Producing companies 126
South Korea 128
Taiwan 129
Salient statistics 129
Consumption 130
Consumption by type 131
Consumption by market 132
Trade 132
Southeast Asia and Oceania 133
Producing companies 133
Thailand 133
PLA 134
PBS 135
Other biodegradable polymers 135
Other Southeast Asia and Oceania 135
Salient statistics 137
Consumption by type 138
Consumption by market 140
Trade 141
Appendix I—Bio-based polymers 143
Appendix II—Geographic regions 145
Additional resources 146
Revisions 148
Data Workbook 149
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