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Vehicle Performance & Compliance Monitor (VPaC)

Balance risk with reward in the pursuit of regulatory compliance and vehicle performance.

What are my competitors doing with future powertrain options? Which technologies offer the best efficiency returns? If we miss our fleet's fuel economy and CO2 target, what’s the penalty?

Achieving compliance while maximizing vehicle performance tops the concerns of most automotive companies. Indeed, the average OEM will invest $5-8 billion each year in research and development for fuel efficiency. To help automotive manufacturers guide these investments, IHS Markit has pioneered a solution that allows you to quickly assess the longer-term tradeoffs among fuel economy, vehicle performance and regulatory compliance.

The Vehicle Performance & Compliance Monitor (VPaC) is a cloud-based web portal providing access to a twelve-year forecast for CO2 emissions, fuel consumption and acceleration performance for more than 60,000 vehicle-powertrain combinations – including 160-plus attributes per vehicle – across the United States, EU 28, China and Brazil. From visualizing how an OEM’s fleet will evolve in terms of CO2 performance, to judging who is likely to strike the critical balance between performance and emissions across brands, to identifying distressed OEMs to target, VPaC is a one-stop shop that gives OEMs and suppliers insight into vehicle performance and compliance for the entire market. No other offering features this breadth of information, speed of research results, technical rigor, competitive intelligence or cloud-based flexibility.

With VPaC, you can:

  • Understand your competitors use of CO2-saving and fuel efficiency technologies
  • See where your competitors are likely to position their products in each market segment
  • Simulate impact of new technologies on performance, fuel efficiency and carbon footprint
  • Optimize vehicle and fleet compliance globally in highly varied regulatory environments
  • Calculate tradeoff between potential government compliance fees versus sales
  • Determine the business case for your technology versus other viable options

Will your vehicle fleet be compliant?

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What’s Included

Emissions & Fuel Economy Forecast

Inform your planning with insight into competitive powertrain efficiency expectations, including:

  • 3-year history and 7 year-forecast by body type
  • Fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions forecasts
  • Coverage of +36,000 vehicle-powertrain combinations
  • Ability to search by 160-plus attributes

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Market Coverage

Enter VPaC through your market of choice below, and switch markets at any time to compare vehicle or fleet results:

  • United States
  • Europe (E28)
  • China
  • Brazil
Vehicle Compliance Module (additional purchase)

Get an unbiased, physics-based outlook into potential OEM compliance gaps with:

  • Fleet-level fuel economy and CO2 forecasts
  • Vehicle and fleet compliance attributes outlooks
  • Distance to target

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Vehicle Performance Module (additional purchase)

Strike the right balance between performance and efficiency with:

  • Trade-off metrics to test theoretical performance forecast
  • Acceleration performance projections

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12-Year Extension Module (additional purchase)

Get the long-term forecast for fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions by adding five years to the base-forecast horizon. This extension also increases the number of vehicle-powertrain combinations to over 60,000.

CO2 Response Tool (additional purchase)

The VPaC Response Tool is an enhancement to base VPaC data enabling OEMs and suppliers to evaluate technology costs for specific vehicles and OEM compliance paths. These costs are generated by IHS Markit through detailed component level assessment of individual technologies and systems. IHS Markit takes great care to insure that these technologies are fully vetted to understand the initial costs but also the effects of learning and economies of scale. Ultimately, these costs are used with CO2 and fuel economy outputs to determine the most cost effective strategy for compliance by an OEM or even down to a specific vehicle.

The VPaC Response Tool helps answer questions such as:

  • What is the cost for compliance for an OEM using EVs versus PHEVs versus HEVs?
  • What are the long term cost implications to European OEMs due to the expected falling diesel penetration rate?
  • What are the technologies that have the lowest cost of compliance for a specific vehicle?
  • Where does a specific technology fit on the adoption curve for a specific regulatory market?
  • Will customers find a level of technology requirement acceptable given the cost/benefit calculation?
  • What would it take to meet the regulatory requirement for a given cost premium?

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Is VPaC right for you?

Designed for strategy planning and competitive vehicle analysis, VPaC goes beyond the traditional engineering context by offering full vehicle performance and compliance analysis.

Who uses VPaC? How?
  • Determine total anticipated CO2 and fuel-economy performance across an entire future fleet
Compliance & Sustainability Officers
  • Prepare incentive strategies to sell vehicles
  • Assess tradeoffs between non-compliance penalty fees, technology deployment decisions and credit purchase strategy decisions
  • Avoid non-compliance penalty fees
  • Strengthen company reputation for sustainability
OEM Product Planners
  • Assess CO2 and fuel economy for competitors' future vehicles across the company’s market segments
  • Preserve brand reputation as a technology leader
  • Maintain and advance market share
OEM Product Engineers
  • Identify the competitive CO2 and fuel economy targets and benchmarks for product designs
  • Understand tradeoffs of available technology options to achieve mass reduction and vehicle efficiency, along with the resulting competitive impact on vehicle performance
  • Meet vehicle program budget costs
  • Ensure vehicle profitability
  • Target OEMs and vehicles that need my technology most
  • Demonstrate an analytics-based understanding to OEMs of their compliance challenges
  • Assess the business case for my technology versus other viable options


Andrew Fulbrook

Andrew is responsible for managing the global powertrain team and forecasts. He supervises future global product program intelligence and market analysis, future technologies and trends assessments, and qualitative consulting activities surrounding powertrain electrification. Prior to joining S&P Global, he worked extensively in the area of European powertrain and component research. He is widely quoted in European and global automotive publications, is often invited to provide keynote speeches and has written multiple editorial contributions over the years.Andrew holds a Higher National Diploma with Merit in Mechatronics, including Higher Mathematics, as well as a National Diploma in Engineering Science, both from Brooklands College, Surrey, England, UK.

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Vijay Subramanian

Vijay is a Global lead for CO2 compliance business initiatives and forecast product offerings for S&P Global Mobility automotive team on the subjects of GHG, CAFE compliance, CO2 forecasting, and Cost / Investment forecasting. This also includes the regulatory impact assessment of car manufacturers investment and powertrain portfolio trends to meet competitiveness and compliance. Extensive experience on Climate change transportation policy for Europe, China, and NAFTA market and its contribution to Net Zero and Circular economy.He also served as a technology leader to manage cross-functional initiatives on vehicle portfolio optimization, cost-benefit technology selection and product planning to set fuel economy and energy management targets to meet regulation targets.Vijay is also well known within the auto industry for his contribution to news articles, whitepapers, press, conferences, panels, and speaking engagements around GHG/CO2 regulation for China, Europe, and US market.He is a subject matter expert for the S&P Global Mobility Automotive team on the topic of NetZero / Sustainability / Climate Change and resilience / Smart and sustainable cities / GHG/ Sustainability / Policy and regulation/ CO2 Compliance/ Cost Forecasting /Powertrain and Electrification /Energy Management.Vijay earned a Master of Engineering degree in 2004 and served in numerous roles with major manufacturers like Caterpillar, Chrysler, Jaguar Land Rover, and Changan before joining S&P Global.

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