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Ammonia

Chemical Economics Handbook

Contents

Executive summary 7
Summary 9
World supply and demand 11
Capacity 12
Production 14
Consumption 15
Price 18
Trade 20
Introduction 22
Manufacturing processes 24
Synthesis gas production 24
Steam reforming 24
Partial oxidation 24
Cryogenic separation 25
Coal gasification 25
Electrolysis 25
Synthesis gas purification 25
Shift conversion 25
Removal of carbon dioxide 26
Removal of residual carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide 26
Ammonia synthesis 26
Trends in synthetic ammonia plant development 26
Ammonia plant retrofits 27
Trends in costs 27
Recovered ammonia 28
Coking by-product 28
Petroleum refinery wastewater 29
Green ammonia 29
Other developments 29
Ammonia as an energy carrier 30
Environmental issues 31
Supply and demand by region 32
United States 32
Producing companies 32
Salient statistics 37
Consumption 38
Direct application as fertilizer 41
Downstream products 42
Chemical uses 42
Caprolactam 42
Acrylonitrile 42
Hydrogen cyanide 42
Miscellaneous amines and nitriles 42
Other 43
Industrial-grade ammonia 43
Distribution 43
Price 44
Trade 46
Canada 48
Producing companies 48
Salient statistics 49
Consumption 49
Price 50
Trade 51
Mexico 51
Producing companies 51
Salient statistics 52
Consumption 53
Central and South America 54
Producing companies 54
Salient statistics 58
Production 59
Consumption 59
Trade 61
Western Europe 62
Producing companies 62
Capacity 64
Salient statistics 65
Production 66
Consumption 67
Trade 69
Central Europe 71
Producing companies 71
Capacity 73
Salient statistics 74
Production 75
Consumption 76
Trade 78
Eastern Europe 79
Producing companies 79
Capacity 83
Salient statistics 84
Production 84
Consumption 85
Trade 86
Middle East 87
Producing companies 87
Capacity 90
Salient statistics 91
Production 92
Consumption 93
Trade 95
Africa 96
Producing companies 96
Capacity 99
Salient statistics 100
Production 100
Consumption 101
Trade 103
Southwest Asia 104
Producing companies 104
Salient statistics 108
Production 109
Consumption 109
Trade 111
China 111
Producing companies 111
Salient statistics 120
Consumption 121
Urea 122
Nitric acid 122
Ammonium nitrate 123
Ammonium phosphates 123
Ammonium sulfate 123
Ammonium chloride 123
Ammonium bicarbonate 123
Acrylonitrile 124
Caprolactam 124
Alkylamines 124
Other 124
Price 124
Trade 124
Japan 125
Producing companies 125
Salient statistics 126
Consumption 127
Trade 128
Other Northeast Asia 129
Producing companies 129
Salient statistics 129
Consumption 130
Trade 131
Southeast Asia 132
Producing companies 132
Salient statistics 134
Production 135
Consumption 135
Trade 137
Oceania 138
Producing companies 138
Salient statistics 138
Production 139
Consumption 140
Trade 141
Additional resources 142
Revisions 143
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