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Air Separation Gases

Chemical Economics Handbook

Contents

Executive summary 11
Summary 13
Industry structure 20
United States 29
Western Europe 31
Mainland China33
Japan 34
Introduction 37
Properties and grades 37
Conversion factors 38
Manufacturing processes 39
Cryogenic distillation of air 46
Adsorption processes 52
Inert gas generation 53
Ammonia dissociation 54
Nitrogen-rich natural gas wells 55
Electrolytic dissociation of water 55
Argon from ammonia plants 55
Other sources of gases 56
COVID-19 impact 56
Supply and demand by region 58
United States 58
Producing companies 58
Distribution 119
Consumption 121
Oxygen 122
Primary metals production 122
Chemicals 128
Gasification 130
Petroleum refineries 133
Fabricated metal products 136
Health services 137
Clay, glass, and concrete products 139
Pulp and paper 144
Municipal wastewater treatment 153
Ozone for potable water 154
Other 155
Nitrogen 156
Chemicals 157
Primary metals and fabricated metal products 158
Electronics 159
Oil and gas extraction 160
Petroleum refining 163
Food industry 164
Glass 166
Other 168
Argon 171
Fabricated metal products 172
Primary metals industries 174
Other 175
Price 176
Merchant liquid or gaseous products 176
Pipelined or on-site gaseous products 177
Trade 177
Oxygen 177
Nitrogen 178
Argon 179
Canada 179
Producing companies 179
Consumption 187
Price 188
Mexico 189
Central and South America 193
Western Europe 202
Producing companies 202
Capacity 218
Salient statistics 221
Oxygen 221
Nitrogen 221
Argon 222
Production 223
Oxygen 224
Nitrogen 225
Argon 226
Rare gases 227
Distribution 230
Consumption 230
Oxygen 230
Chemical industry 232
Primary metals production 234
Health services 234
Fabricated metal products 235
Petroleum refineries 235
Glass production 236
Coal and gas liquefaction 236
Pulp and paper 236
Water and wastewater treatment 237
Electronics 237
Other 237
Nitrogen 238
Gaseous nitrogen 238
Liquid nitrogen 238
Chemical industry 240
Primary metals production 240
Electronics 240
Food industry 240
Oil and gas extraction 240
Petroleum refineries 241
Fabricated metal products 241
Glass production 241
Rubber and plastics 241
Other 241
Argon 242
Fabricated metal products 243
Primary metals production 243
Electronics and lasers 243
Glass production 243
Other 244
Price 244
Oxygen 244
Nitrogen 245
Argon 246
Trade 247
Oxygen 247
Imports 247
Exports 248
Nitrogen 249
Imports 249
Exports 250
Argon 251
Imports 251
Exports 252
Central Europe 253
Producing companies 253
Capacity 258
Salient statistics 260
Oxygen 260
Nitrogen 261
Argon 262
Production 262
Oxygen 263
Nitrogen 265
Argon 265
Rare gases 266
Consumption 267
Oxygen 267
Nitrogen 269
Argon 270
Price 272
Oxygen 272
Nitrogen 272
Argon 272
Trade 273
Oxygen 273
Imports 273
Exports 274
Nitrogen 275
Imports 275
Exports 276
Argon 277
Imports 277
Exports 278
CIS and Baltic States 279
Producing companies 279
Capacity 288
Salient statistics 290
Oxygen 290
Nitrogen 291
Production 292
Oxygen 293
Nitrogen 293
Argon 294
Rare gases 295
Consumption 298
Oxygen 298
Nitrogen 300
Price 301
Oxygen 301
Nitrogen 301
Argon 301
Trade 302
Oxygen 302
Imports 302
Exports 303
Nitrogen 304
Imports 304
Exports 305
Argon 306
Imports 306
Exports 307
Middle East 308
Producing companies 308
Capacity 315
Salient statistics 316
Oxygen 316
Nitrogen 317
Production 318
Oxygen 319
Nitrogen 319
Argon 320
Rare gases 321
Consumption 321
Oxygen 321
Nitrogen 324
Price 325
Oxygen 325
Nitrogen 325
Argon 325
Trade 326
Oxygen 326
Imports 326
Exports 327
Nitrogen 328
Imports 328
Exports 329
Argon 330
Imports 330
Exports 331
Africa 332
Producing Companies 332
Capacity 337
Salient statistics 339
Oxygen 339
Nitrogen 340
Production 341
Oxygen 342
Nitrogen 343
Argon 343
Rare gases 344
Consumption 344
Oxygen 344
Nitrogen 346
Price 347
Oxygen 347
Nitrogen 347
Argon 347
Trade 348
Oxygen 348
Imports 348
Exports 349
Nitrogen 350
Imports 350
Exports 351
Argon 352
Imports 352
Exports 353
Indian Subcontinent 354
Producing companies 354
Bangladesh 360
India 360
Pakistan 360
Salient statistics 360
Oxygen 360
Nitrogen 361
Consumption 361
Oxygen 361
Nitrogen 363
Price 364
Trade 364
Mainland China 365
Producing companies 365
Oxygen 384
Nitrogen 384
Argon 385
Consumption 386
Oxygen 386
Primary metals production 387
Coal gasification 387
Fabricated metal products 388
Chemical industry 389
Health services 389
Clay, glass, and concrete products 389
Pulp and paper 389
Water and treatment 389
Nitrogen 390
Chemical industry 390
Primary metals and fabricated metal products 390
Electronics 391
Petroleum refining 391
Food industry 391
Other 391
Argon 391
Price 392
Trade 393
Oxygen 393
Nitrogen 394
Argon 396
Japan 397
Producing companies 397
Salient statistics 402
Oxygen 402
Nitrogen 403
Argon 404
Production 404
Consumption 405
Oxygen 405
Nitrogen 407
Argon 409
Price 410
Trade 410
Other Northeast Asia 411
Producing companies 411
Salient statistics 416
Oxygen 416
Nitrogen 416
Consumption 417
Oxygen 417
Nitrogen 419
Argon 419
Rare gases 419
Price 420
Trade 421
Southeast Asia and Oceania 422
Producing companies 422
Salient statistics 430
Oxygen 430
Nitrogen 431
Consumption 432
Oxygen 432
Nitrogen 434
Price 434
Trade 435
Appendix—Major nitrogen- or inert gas–consuming chemical processes 437
Additional resources 440
Revisions 441
Data Workbook 442
Notice 443
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