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Air Separation Gases

Chemical Economics Handbook

Contents

Executive summary 10
Summary 12
Industry structure 20
United States 28
Western Europe 30
China 32
Japan 33
Introduction 36
Properties and grades 36
Conversion factors 37
Manufacturing processes 38
Cryogenic distillation of air 44
Adsorption processes 50
Inert gas generation 51
Ammonia dissociation 52
Nitrogen-rich natural gas wells 53
Electrolytic dissociation of water 53
Argon from ammonia plants 53
Other sources of gases 54
Supply and demand by region 55
United States 55
Producing companies 55
Distribution 99
Consumption 104
Oxygen 104
Primary metals production 105
Chemicals 112
Gasification 114
Petroleum refineries 118
Fabricated metal products 121
Health services 122
Clay, glass, and concrete products 124
Pulp and paper 127
Municipal wastewater treatment 133
Ozone for potable water 135
Other 136
Nitrogen 137
Chemicals 138
Primary metals and fabricated metal products 139
Electronics 140
Oil and gas extraction 141
Petroleum refining 144
Food industry 145
Glass 147
Other 149
Argon 152
Fabricated metal products 153
Primary metals industries 154
Other 155
Price 156
Merchant liquid or gaseous products 156
Pipelined or on-site gaseous products 157
Trade 157
Oxygen 157
Nitrogen 158
Argon 159
Canada 160
Producing companies 160
Consumption 167
Price 169
Mexico 169
Central and South America 172
Western Europe 182
Producing companies 169
Capacity 193
Salient statistics 194
Oxygen 194
Nitrogen 195
Argon 196
Production 196
Oxygen 198
Nitrogen 199
Argon 200
Rare gases 201
Distribution 202
Consumption 202
Oxygen 203
Chemical industry 205
Primary metals production 207
Coal and gas liquefaction 207
Health services 208
Fabricated metal products 208
Pulp and paper 208
Petroleum refineries 209
Glass production 209
Water and wastewater treatment 210
Other 210
Nitrogen 210
Gaseous nitrogen 211
Liquid nitrogen 211
Chemical industry 213
Primary metals production 213
Food industry 213
Oil and gas extraction 213
Petroleum refineries 214
Glass production 214
Other 214
Argon 214
Price 214
Oxygen 215
Nitrogen 216
Argon 216
Trade 217
Oxygen 218
Imports 218
Exports 218
Nitrogen 219
Imports 219
Exports 220
Argon 220
Imports 220
Exports 221
Central Europe 221
Producing companies 221
Salient statistics 227
Oxygen 227
Nitrogen 228
Argon 229
Production 229
Oxygen 230
Nitrogen 232
Argon 233
Rare gases 234
Consumption 234
Oxygen 234
Nitrogen 237
Price 238
Oxygen 238
Nitrogen 238
Argon 239
Trade 239
Oxygen 239
Imports 239
Exports 240
Nitrogen 240
Imports 240
Exports 241
Argon 241
Imports 241
Exports 242
Eastern Europe 242
Producing companies 242
Salient statistics 249
Oxygen 249
Nitrogen 250
Production 250
Oxygen 251
Nitrogen 252
Argon 253
Rare gases 253
Consumption 255
Oxygen 255
Nitrogen 258
Argon 259
Price 259
Oxygen 259
Nitrogen 260
Argon 260
Trade 260
Oxygen 260
Imports 261
Exports 261
Nitrogen 261
Imports 262
Exports 262
Argon 262
Imports 263
Exports 263
Middle East 263
Producing companies 269
Salient statistics 269
Oxygen 270
Nitrogen 270
Production 271
Oxygen 272
Nitrogen 273
Consumption 273
Oxygen 275
Nitrogen 276
Trade 276
Oxygen 276
Imports 276
Exports 277
Nitrogen 277
Imports 277
Exports 278
Argon 278
Imports 279
Exports 279
Africa 279
Producing Companies 283
Salient statistics 283
Oxygen 284
Nitrogen 285
Production 286
Oxygen 286
Nitrogen 287
Consumption 287
Oxygen 289
Nitrogen 290
Trade 290
Oxygen 290
Imports 290
Exports 291
Nitrogen 291
Imports 291
Exports 292
Argon 292
Imports 292
Exports 293
China 293
Producing companies 293
Oxygen 308
Nitrogen 308
Argon 309
Consumption 310
Oxygen 310
Primary metals production 311
Coal gasification 311
Fabricated metal products 312
Chemical industry 312
Health services 312
Clay, glass, and concrete products 312
Pulp and paper 313
Water and treatment 313
Nitrogen 313
Chemical industry 313
Primary metals and fabricated metal products 314
Electronics 314
Petroleum refining 314
Food industry 314
Other 314
Argon 315
Price 315
Trade 316
Oxygen 316
Nitrogen 317
Argon 318
Japan 320
Producing companies 320
Production 325
Consumption 325
Oxygen 325
Nitrogen 327
Argon 327
Production 328
Trade 328
Other Asia 329
Producing companies 329
Salient statistics 344
Southwest Asia 344
Northeast Asia 345
Southeast Asia 345
Oceania 346
Trade 346
Oxygen 346
Nitrogen 348
Argon 349
Appendix I—Major nitrogen- or inert gas–consuming chemical processes 352
Appendix II—Historical US salient statistics for oxygen, nitrogen, and argon 355
Additional resources 357
Revisions 358
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